A climatology of the diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone over Bern, Switzerland

Studer, Simone; Hocke, Klemens; Schanz, Ansgar Ulrich; Schmidt, Hauke; Kämpfer, Niklaus (2013). A climatology of the diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone over Bern, Switzerland. Atmospheric chemistry and physics Discussions, 13(8), pp. 22445-22485. European Geosciences Union 10.5194/acpd-13-22445-2013

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The ground-based radiometer GROMOS, stationed in Bern (47.95° N, 7.44° E), Switzerland, has a unique dataset: it obtains ozone profiles from November 1994 to present with a time resolution of 30 min and equal quality during night- and daytime. Here, we derive a monthly climatology of the daily ozone cycle from 17 yr of GROMOS observation. We present the diurnal ozone variation of the stratosphere and mesosphere. Characterizing the diurnal cycle of stratospheric ozone is important for correct trend estimates of the ozone layer derived from satellite observations. The diurnal ozone cycle from GROMOS is compared to two models: The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and the Hamburg Model of Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA). Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) ozone data, from night- and daytime overpasses over Bern, have also been included in the comparison. Generally, observation and models show good qualitative agreement: in the lower mesosphere, daytime ozone is for both GROMOS and models around 25% less than nighttime ozone (reference is 22:30–01:30). In the stratosphere, ozone reaches its maximum in the afternoon showing values several percent larger than the midnight value. It is important that diurnal ozone variations of this order are taken into account when merging different data sets for the derivation of long-term ozone trends in the stratosphere. Further, GROMOS and models indicate a seasonal behavior of daily ozone variations in the stratosphere with a larger afternoon maximum during daytime in summer than in winter. At 0.35 hPa, observations from GROMOS and Aura/MLS show a seasonal pattern in diurnal ozone variations with larger relative amplitudes during daytime in winter (−25 ± 5%) than in summer (−18 ± 4%) (compared to mean values around midnight). For the first time, a time series of the diurnal variations in ozone is presented: 17 yr of GROMOS data show strong interannual variations in the diurnal ozone cycle for both the stratosphere and the mesosphere. There are some indications that strong temperature tides can suppress the diurnal variation of stratospheric ozone via the anticorrelation of temperature and ozone. That means the spatio-temporal variability of solar thermal tides seems to affect the diurnal cycle of stratospheric ozone.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Applied Physics

UniBE Contributor:

Studer, Simone (B), Hocke, Klemens, Schanz, Ansgar Ulrich, Kämpfer, Niklaus


600 Technology > 620 Engineering




European Geosciences Union




Martin Frenz-Lips

Date Deposited:

22 Sep 2014 10:48

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:34

Publisher DOI:


Additional Information:

The discussion paper has a corresponding peer-reviewed
final revised paper in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). (Special Issue: Changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – the SI2N report)





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