Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN): A reliable factor-analysis based synaesthesia questionnaire

Rothen, Nicolas; Tsakanikos, Elias; Meier, Beat; Ward, Jamie (2013). Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN): A reliable factor-analysis based synaesthesia questionnaire. Consciousness and cognition, 22(3), pp. 1047-1060. Elsevier 10.1016/j.concog.2013.07.005

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Synaesthesia is a heterogeneous phenomenon, even when considering one particular sub-type. The purpose of this study was to design a reliable and valid questionnaire for grapheme-colour synaesthesia that captures this heterogeneity. By the means of a large sample of 628 synaesthetes and a factor analysis, we created the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire with 16 items loading on 4 different factors (i.e., localisation, automaticity/attention, deliberate use, and longitudinal changes). These factors were externally validated with tests which are widely used in the field of synaesthesia research. The questionnaire showed good test–retest reliability and construct validity (i.e., internally and externally). Our findings are discussed in the light of current theories and new ideas in synaesthesia research. More generally, the questionnaire is a useful tool which can be
widely used in synaesthesia research to reveal the influence of individual differences on various performance measures and will be useful in generating new hypotheses.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Psychological and Behavioral Health
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Social Neuroscience and Social Psychology
10 Strategic Research Centers > Center for Cognition, Learning and Memory (CCLM)

UniBE Contributor:

Rothen, Nicolas, Meier, Beat


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology








Anna Maria Ruprecht Künzli

Date Deposited:

29 Sep 2014 11:43

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:34

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