Mechanical constraints imposed by 3D cellular geometry and arrangement modulate growth patterns in the Arabidopsis embryo

Bassel, George W.; Stamm, Petra; Mosca, Gabriella; Barbier de Reuille, Pierre; Gibbs, Daniel J.; Winter, Robin; Janka, Ales; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Smith, Richard Simon (2014). Mechanical constraints imposed by 3D cellular geometry and arrangement modulate growth patterns in the Arabidopsis embryo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - PNAS, 111(23), pp. 8685-8690. National Academy of Sciences NAS 10.1073/pnas.1404616111

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Morphogenesis occurs in 3D space over time and is guided by coordinated gene expression programs. Here we use postembryonic development in Arabidopsis plants to investigate the genetic control of growth. We demonstrate that gene expression driving the production of the growth-stimulating hormone gibberellic acid and downstream growth factors is first induced within the radicle tip of the embryo. The center of cell expansion is, however, spatially displaced from the center of gene expression. Because the rapidly growing cells have very different geometry from that of those at the tip, we hypothesized that mechanical factors may contribute to this growth displacement. To this end we developed 3D finite-element method models of growing custom-designed digital embryos at cellular resolution. We used this framework to conceptualize how cell size, shape, and topology influence tissue growth and to explore the interplay of geometrical and genetic inputs into growth distribution. Our simulations showed that mechanical constraints are sufficient to explain the disconnect between the experimentally observed spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression and early postembryonic growth. The center of cell expansion is the position where genetic and mechanical facilitators of growth converge. We have thus uncovered a mechanism whereby 3D cellular geometry helps direct where genetically specified growth takes place.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Plant Development

UniBE Contributor:

Mosca, Gabriella; Barbier de Reuille, Pierre and Smith, Richard Simon

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

0027-8424

Publisher:

National Academy of Sciences NAS

Language:

English

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

13 Aug 2014 08:03

Last Modified:

08 Sep 2015 11:34

Publisher DOI:

10.1073/pnas.1404616111

Uncontrolled Keywords:

computational modeling, quantification, biomechanics, plant development, seed germination

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.54563

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/54563

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