Multiple Sclerosis: Current Knowledge and Future Outlook

Kamm, Christian Philipp; Uitdehaag, Bernard M.; Polman, Chris H. (2014). Multiple Sclerosis: Current Knowledge and Future Outlook. European neurology, 72(3-4), pp. 132-141. Karger 10.1159/000360528

[img] Text
MS Review European Neurology 2014 - Kamm-Uitdehaag-Polman.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (206kB) | Request a copy

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by demyelination and axonal loss. The etiology of MS is unknown; however, environmental and genetic factors play a key role in the development of MS. Diagnostic criteria have been adapted to facilitate earlier diagnosis with increased sensitivity and specificity. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of MS has deepened considerably in recent years, resulting in different therapies to modify the disease course. Furthermore, several drugs have lately shown efficacy in phase III studies and their approval is expected in the near future. As treatment options expand, a future challenge will be to find the optimal treatment for the individual patient. Summary: This mini-review gives an overview of the current knowledge of MS with emphasis on the latest diagnostic criteria and both current and upcoming treatment options. Key Messages: Treatment of MS changes rapidly as the knowledge and therapeutic options in MS expand. Clinical Impact: Diagnosis of MS is based on McDonald criteria. MS therapy can be divided into relapse, disease-modifying and symptomatic treatment. Relapses are commonly treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. First-line therapy consists of either interferon-β, glatiramer acetate or teriflunomide. In general, agents used as escalation therapies (natalizumab, fingolimod and mitoxantrone) are more potent than the agents used for first-line therapy; however, these have potentially serious side effects and should be used with care.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology

UniBE Contributor:

Kamm, Christian Philipp


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Valentina Rossetti

Date Deposited:

09 Oct 2014 12:03

Last Modified:

29 Oct 2015 12:01

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback