Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants

Feller, Urs; Vaseva, Irina (2014). Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2(39) Frontiers Media 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00039

[img]
Preview
Text
FrontEnvironSci_2_39.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (3MB) | Preview

Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g., heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding) in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it influences simultaneously water loss via transpiration and CO2 diffusion into the leaf apoplast which further is utilized in photosynthesis. Along with the reversible short-term control of stomatal opening, stomata and leaf epidermis may produce waxy deposits and irreversibly down-regulate the stomatal conductance and non-stomatal transpiration. As a consequence photosynthesis will be negatively affected. Rubisco activase—a key enzyme in keeping the Calvin cycle functional—is heat-sensitive and may become a limiting factor at elevated temperature. The accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress represent an additional challenge under unfavorable conditions. Drought and heat cause accumulation of free amino acids which are partially converted into compatible solutes such as proline. This is accompanied by lower rates of both nitrate reduction and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Protective proteins (e.g., dehydrins, chaperones, antioxidant enzymes or the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis) play an important role in leaves and may be present at higher levels under water deprivation or high temperatures. On the whole plant level, effects on long-distance translocation of solutes via xylem and phloem and on leaf senescence (e.g., anticipated, accelerated or delayed senescence) are important. The factors mentioned above are relevant for the overall performance of crops under drought and heat and must be considered for genotype selection and breeding programs.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Plant nutrition (discontinued)
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Feller, Urs and Vaseva, Irina

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

2296-665X

Publisher:

Frontiers Media

Language:

English

Submitter:

Peter Alfred von Ballmoos-Haas

Date Deposited:

16 Oct 2014 13:29

Last Modified:

10 Dec 2014 01:21

Publisher DOI:

10.3389/fenvs.2014.00039

Uncontrolled Keywords:

drought, heat, abioticstress, stomates, proteinpattern, leaf senescence, xylem, phloem

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.59315

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/59315

Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback