Trauma, developmental stages, and motivational abilities in indentured Swiss child laborers in old age

Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Horn, Andrea B; Krammer, Sandy; Maercker, Andreas (2014). Trauma, developmental stages, and motivational abilities in indentured Swiss child laborers in old age. Zeitschrift für psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, 60(2), pp. 146-161. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 10.13109/zptm.2014.60.2.146

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OBJECTIVES The study examined the relationship between potential traumatic events in childhood and motivational abilities in old adulthood according to developmental stage. METHODS The motivational abilities of self-efficacy, conscientiousness and impulsivity (self control) were investigated in a sample of 114 formerly indentured Swiss child laborers. Adversities were assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The sample was split into four age groups according to the beginning of the potential trauma: infancy (0-2), preschool (3-5), early childhood (6-9), and early adolescence (≥ 10). RESULTS The strongest relationship was found between self-efficacy and CTQ in the group "early adolescence," followed by the relationship between conscientiousness and CTQ in the same group. Impulsivity and CTQ were most strongly associated in the "preschool" group. CONCLUSION Childhood adversities seem to have a negative impact on self-efficacy and conscientiousness after the age of ten. In contrast, self-control seems to be affected by the deleterious effect of trauma or adversity already at an earlier age.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Legal Medicine > Forensic Psychiatric Services

UniBE Contributor:

Krammer, Sandy


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht




Antoinette Angehrn

Date Deposited:

29 Jan 2015 12:30

Last Modified:

07 Aug 2019 14:55

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:



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