Patient and Informant Views on Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson Disease.

Urwyler, Prabitha; Nef, Tobias; Müri, René Martin; Killen, Alison; Collerton, Daniel; Burn, David; McKeith, Ian; Mosimann, Urs Peter (2015). Patient and Informant Views on Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson Disease. American journal of geriatric psychiatry, 23(9), pp. 970-976. Elsevier 10.1016/j.jagp.2014.12.190

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Visual hallucinations (VHs) are a very personal experience, and it is not clear whether information about them is best provided by informants or patients. Some patients may not share their hallucinatory experiences with caregivers to avoid distress or for fear of being labeled insane, and others do not have informants at all, which limits the use of informant-based questionnaires. The aim of this study was to compare patient and caregiver views about VHs in Parkinson disease (PD), using the North-East Visual Hallucinations Interview (NEVHI).


Fifty-nine PD patient-informant pairs were included. PD patients and informants were interviewed separately about VHs using the NEVHI. Informants were additionally interviewed using the four-item version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Inter-reliability and concurrent validity of the different measures were compared.


VHs were more commonly reported by patients than informants. The inter-rater agreement between NEVHI-patient and NEVHI-informant was moderate for complex VHs (Cohen's kappa = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.75; t = 3.43, df = 58, p = 0.001) and feeling of presence (Cohen's kappa = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.00-0.70; t = 2.75, df = 58, p = 0.006), but agreement was poor for illusions (Cohen's kappa = 0.25; 95% CI: -0.07-0.57; t = 2.36, df = 58, p = 0.018) and passage hallucinations (Cohen's kappa = 0.16; 95% CI: -0.04-0.36; t = 2.26, df = 58, p = 0.024).


When assessing VHs in PD patients, it is best to rely on patient information, because not all patients share the details of their hallucinations with their caregivers.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology
10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research > ARTORG Center - Gerontechnology and Rehabilitation

UniBE Contributor:

Urwyler-Harischandra, Prabitha, Nef, Tobias, Müri, René Martin, Mosimann, Urs Peter


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Valentina Rossetti

Date Deposited:

26 Feb 2015 14:44

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:41

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Parkinson disease, Visual hallucinations, inter-rater agreement




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