Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases

Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh; Castrence, Miguel; Nong, Duong; Spencer, James; Lam, Nguyen; Finucane, Melissa; Duc Vien, Tran; Wilcox, Bruce (2014). Role of Urbanization, Land-Use Diversity, and Livestock Intensification in Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (East-West Center Working Papers: Environment, Population, and Health Series, No. 6). Honolulu, USA: East-West Center

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Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) continue to significantly threaten human and animal health. While there has been some progress in identifying underlying proximal driving forces and causal mechanisms of disease emergence, the role of distal factors is most poorly understood. This article focuses on analyzing the statistical association between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and urbanization, land-use diversity and poultry intensification. A special form of the urban transition—peri-urbanization—was hypothesized as being associated with ‘hot-spots’ of disease emergence. Novel metrics were used to characterize these distal risk factors. Our models, which combined these newly proposed risk factors with previously known natural and human risk factors, had a far higher predictive performance compared to published models for the first two epidemiological waves in Viet Nam. We found that when relevant risk factors are taken into account, urbanization is generally not a significant independent risk factor. However, urbanization spatially combines other risk factors leading to peri-urban places being the most likely ‘hot-spots’. The work highlights that peri-urban areas have highest levels of chicken density, duck and geese flock size diversity, fraction of land under rice, fraction of land under aquaculture compared to rural and urban areas. Land-use diversity, which has previously never been studied in the context of HPAI H5N1, was found to be a significant risk factor. Places where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production are collocated were found to be at greater risk.

Item Type:

Report (Report)

Division/Institute:

10 Strategic Research Centers > Centre for Development and Environment (CDE)

UniBE Contributor:

Epprecht, Michael

Series:

East-West Center Working Papers: Environment, Population, and Health Series, No. 6

Publisher:

East-West Center

Language:

English

Submitter:

Stephan Schmidt

Date Deposited:

18 Mar 2015 15:31

Last Modified:

19 Mar 2015 22:31

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.63800

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/63800

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