Influence of inspiration to expiration ratio on cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis in a saline lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome*

Boehme, Stefan; Bentley, Alexander H; Hartmann, Erik K; Chang, Shi; Erdös, Gabor; Prinzing, Anatol; Hagmann, Michael; Baumgardner, James E; Ullrich, Roman; Markstaller, Klaus; David, Matthias (2015). Influence of inspiration to expiration ratio on cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis in a saline lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome*. Critical care medicine, 43(3), e65-74. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000788

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OBJECTIVE Cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis can occur during mechanical ventilation, especially in injured lungs. Experimentally, cyclic recruitment and derecruitment can be quantified by respiration-dependent changes in PaO2 (ΔPaO2), reflecting the varying intrapulmonary shunt fraction within the respiratory cycle. This study investigated the effect of inspiration to expiration ratio upon ΔPaO2 and Horowitz index. DESIGN Prospective randomized study. SETTING Laboratory investigation. SUBJECTS Piglets, average weight 30 ± 2 kg. INTERVENTIONS At respiratory rate 6 breaths/min, end-inspiratory pressure (Pendinsp) 40 cm H2O, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, and FIO2 1.0, measurements were performed at randomly set inspiration to expiration ratios during baseline healthy and mild surfactant depletion injury. Lung damage was titrated by repetitive surfactant washout to induce maximal cyclic recruitment and derecruitment as measured by multifrequency phase fluorimetry. Regional ventilation distribution was evaluated by electrical impedance tomography. Step changes in airway pressure from 5 to 40 cm H2O and vice versa were performed after lavage to calculate PO2-based recruitment and derecruitment time constants (TAU). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS In baseline healthy, cyclic recruitment and derecruitment could not be provoked, whereas in model acute respiratory distress syndrome, the highest ΔPaO2 were routinely detected at an inspiration to expiration ratio of 1:4 (range, 52-277 torr [6.9-36.9 kPa]). Shorter expiration time reduced cyclic recruitment and derecruitment significantly (158 ± 85 torr [21.1 ± 11.3 kPa] [inspiration to expiration ratio, 1:4]; 25 ± 12 torr [3.3 ± 1.6 kPa] [inspiration to expiration ratio, 4:1]; p < 0.0001), whereas the PaO2/FIO2 ratio increased (267 ± 50 [inspiration to expiration ratio, 1:4]; 424 ± 53 [inspiration to expiration ratio, 4:1]; p < 0.0001). Correspondingly, regional ventilation redistributed toward dependent lung regions (p < 0.0001). Recruitment was much faster (TAU: fast 1.6 s [78%]; slow 9.2 s) than derecruitment (TAU: fast 3.1 s [87%]; slow 17.7 s) (p = 0.0078). CONCLUSIONS Inverse ratio ventilation minimizes cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis in an experimental model of surfactant-depleted pigs. Time constants for recruitment and derecruitment, and regional ventilation distribution, reflect these findings and highlight the time dependency of cyclic recruitment and derecruitment.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > Clinic and Policlinic for Anaesthesiology and Pain Therapy

UniBE Contributor:

Erdös, Gabor


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Jeannie Wurz

Date Deposited:

23 Feb 2015 16:15

Last Modified:

23 Jan 2018 12:15

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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