The sub-lethal effects and tissue concentration of the human pharmaceutical atenolol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Steinbach, Christoph; Burkina, Viktoriia; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Grabic, Roman; Kocour Kroupova, Hana (2014). The sub-lethal effects and tissue concentration of the human pharmaceutical atenolol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Science of the total environment, 497-498, pp. 209-218. Elsevier 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.111

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Atenolol is a highly prescribed anti-hypertensive pharmaceutical and a member of the group of β-blockers. It has been detected at concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) in waste and surface waters. The present study aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of atenolol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to determine its tissue-specific bioconcentration. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 21 and 42 days to three concentration levels of atenolol (1 μg L(-1) - environmentally relevant concentration, 10 μg L(-1), and 1000 μg L(-1)). The fish exposed to 1 μg L(-1) atenolol exhibited a higher lactate content in the blood plasma and a reduced haemoglobin content compared with the control. The results show that exposure to atenolol at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 μg L(-1) significantly reduces both the haematocrit value and the glucose concentration in the blood plasma. The activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) were not significantly affected by atenolol exposure, and only the highest tested concentration of atenolol significantly reduced the activity of glutathione reductase. The activities of selected CYP450 enzymes were not affected by atenolol exposure. The histological changes indicate that atenolol has an effect on the vascular system, as evidenced by the observed liver congestion and changes in the pericardium and myocardium. Atenolol was found to have a very low bioconcentration factor (the highest value found was 0.27). The bioconcentration levels followed the order liver>kidney>muscle. The concentration of atenolol in the blood plasma was below the limit of quantification (2.0 ng g(-1)). The bioconcentration factors and the activities of selected CYP450 enzymes suggest that atenolol is not metabolised in the liver and may be excreted unchanged.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Center for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI)

UniBE Contributor:

Steinbach, Christoph and Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

0048-9697

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Lucia Gugger-Raaflaub

Date Deposited:

23 Apr 2015 11:42

Last Modified:

12 Oct 2015 15:28

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.111

PubMed ID:

25129157

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Antioxidant enzymes, Biochemical markers, Bioconcentration, Haematological parameters, Histopathological changes, β-Blockers

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.65480

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/65480

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