The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo Enrique; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany; Castro, Noemí; Pourlis, Aris; Almeida, André M (2014). The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review. Journal of dairy research, 81(03), pp. 304-318. Cambridge University Press 10.1017/S0022029914000235

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The importance of small ruminants to the dairy industry has increased in recent years, especially in developing countries, where it has a high economic and social impact. Interestingly and despite the fact that the mammary gland is the specialised milk production organ, very few authors studied the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production. In addition, associating these patterns with different milking frequencies, lactation number or different diets is also of high importance, directly affecting the dairy industry. The mammary gland is commonly composed of parenchyma and stroma, which includes the ductal system, with individual proportions of each changing during the different periods and yields in a lactation cycle. Indeed, during late gestation, as well as during early to mid-lactation, mammary gland expansion occurs, with an increase in the number of epithelial cells and lumen area, which leads to increment of the parenchyma tissue, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle for small ruminants, and to describe potential differences between goats and sheep, hence contributing to a better description of mammary gland development during lactation for these two poorly studied species.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Veterinary Physiology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH)

UniBE Contributor:

Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo Enrique

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

0022-0299

Publisher:

Cambridge University Press

Language:

English

Submitter:

Lorenzo Enrique Hernandez Castellano

Date Deposited:

07 Apr 2015 15:11

Last Modified:

27 Apr 2018 09:56

Publisher DOI:

10.1017/S0022029914000235

PubMed ID:

24901899

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.66016

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/66016

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