A g-factor metric for k-t-GRAPPA- and PEAK-GRAPPA-based parallel imaging.

Ramb, Rebecca; Binter, Christian; Schultz, Gerrit; Assländer, Jakob; Breuer, Felix; Zaitsev, Maxim; Kozerke, Sebastian; Jung, Bernd (2014). A g-factor metric for k-t-GRAPPA- and PEAK-GRAPPA-based parallel imaging. Magnetic resonance in medicine, 74(1), pp. 125-135. Wiley-Liss 10.1002/mrm.25386

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PURPOSE The aim of this work is to derive a theoretical framework for quantitative noise and temporal fidelity analysis of time-resolved k-space-based parallel imaging methods. THEORY An analytical formalism of noise distribution is derived extending the existing g-factor formulation for nontime-resolved generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) to time-resolved k-space-based methods. The noise analysis considers temporal noise correlations and is further accompanied by a temporal filtering analysis. METHODS All methods are derived and presented for k-t-GRAPPA and PEAK-GRAPPA. A sliding window reconstruction and nontime-resolved GRAPPA are taken as a reference. Statistical validation is based on series of pseudoreplica images. The analysis is demonstrated on a short-axis cardiac CINE dataset. RESULTS The superior signal-to-noise performance of time-resolved over nontime-resolved parallel imaging methods at the expense of temporal frequency filtering is analytically confirmed. Further, different temporal frequency filter characteristics of k-t-GRAPPA, PEAK-GRAPPA, and sliding window are revealed. CONCLUSION The proposed analysis of noise behavior and temporal fidelity establishes a theoretical basis for a quantitative evaluation of time-resolved reconstruction methods. Therefore, the presented theory allows for comparison between time-resolved parallel imaging methods and also nontime-resolved methods. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Jung, Bernd


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Aisha Stefania Mzinga

Date Deposited:

01 May 2015 15:35

Last Modified:

05 Nov 2015 11:18

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

PEAK-GRAPPA; g-factor; k-t-GRAPPA; noise enhancement; pseudoreplica





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