Pre-therapy inflammation and coagulation activation and long-term CD4 count responses to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy

Achhra, A C; Phillips, A; Emery, S; MacArthur, R D; Furrer, Hansjakob; De Wit, S; Losso, M; Law, M G (2015). Pre-therapy inflammation and coagulation activation and long-term CD4 count responses to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV medicine, 16(7), pp. 449-454. Blackwell Science 10.1111/hiv.12258

[img] Text
hiv12258.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (370kB) | Request a copy


Pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) inflammation and coagulation activation predict clinical outcomes in HIV-positive individuals. We assessed whether pre-ART inflammatory marker levels predicted the CD4 count response to ART.


Analyses were based on data from the Strategic Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial, an international trial evaluating continuous vs. interrupted ART, and the Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies (FIRST) trial, evaluating three first-line ART regimens with at least two drug classes. For this analysis, participants had to be ART-naïve or off ART at randomization and (re)starting ART and have C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer measured pre-ART. Using random effects linear models, we assessed the association between each of the biomarker levels, categorized as quartiles, and change in CD4 count from ART initiation to 24 months post-ART. Analyses adjusted for CD4 count at ART initiation (baseline), study arm, follow-up time and other known confounders.


Overall, 1084 individuals [659 from SMART (26% ART naïve) and 425 from FIRST] met the eligibility criteria, providing 8264 CD4 count measurements. Seventy-five per cent of individuals were male with the mean age of 42 years. The median (interquartile range) baseline CD4 counts were 416 (350-530) and 100 (22-300) cells/μL in SMART and FIRST, respectively. All of the biomarkers were inversely associated with baseline CD4 count in FIRST but not in SMART. In adjusted models, there was no clear relationship between changing biomarker levels and mean change in CD4 count post-ART (P for trend: CRP, P = 0.97; IL-6, P = 0.25; and D-dimer, P = 0.29).


Pre-ART inflammation and coagulation activation do not predict CD4 count response to ART and appear to influence the risk of clinical outcomes through other mechanisms than blunting long-term CD4 count gain.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Furrer, Hansjakob


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Blackwell Science




Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

12 Jun 2015 09:53

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:47

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

antiretroviral therapy; CD4 count; coagulation; C-reactive protein; D-dimer; highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV; immunological response; inflammation; interleukin-6




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback