Can 3D ultrasound identify trochlea dysplasia in newborns? Evaluation and applicability of a technique.

Kohlhof, Hendrik; Heidt, Christoph; Bähler, Alexandrine; Kohl, Sandro; Gravius, Sascha; Friedrich, Max; Ziebarth, Kai; Stranzinger, Enno (2015). Can 3D ultrasound identify trochlea dysplasia in newborns? Evaluation and applicability of a technique. European journal of radiology, 84(6), pp. 1159-1164. Elsevier 10.1016/j.ejrad.2015.03.015

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Femoro-patellar dysplasia is considered as a significant risk factor of patellar instability. Different studies suggest that the shape of the trochlea is already developed in early childhood. Therefore early identification of a dysplastic configuration might be relevant information for the treating physician. An easy applicable routine screening of the trochlea is yet not available. The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate a screening method for femoro-patellar dysplasia using 3D ultrasound. From 2012 to 2013 we prospectively imaged 160 consecutive femoro-patellar joints in 80 newborns from the 36th to 61st gestational week that underwent a routine hip sonography (Graf). All ultrasounds were performed by a pediatric radiologist with only minimal additional time to the routine hip ultrasound. In 30° flexion of the knee, axial, coronal, and sagittal reformats were used to standardize a reconstructed axial plane through the femoral condyle and the mid-patella. The sulcus angle, the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea and the shape of the patella (Wiberg Classification) were evaluated. In all examinations reconstruction of the standardized axial plane was achieved, the mean trochlea angle was 149.1° (SD 4.9°), the lateral-to-medial facet ratio of the trochlea ratio was 1.3 (SD 0.22), and a Wiberg type I patella was found in 95% of the newborn. No statistical difference was detected between boys and girls. Using standardized reconstructions of the axial plane allows measurements to be made with lower operator dependency and higher accuracy in a short time. Therefore 3D ultrasound is an easy applicable and powerful tool to identify trochlea dysplasia in newborns and might be used for screening for trochlea dysplasia.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery

UniBE Contributor:

Kohlhof, Hendrik; Heidt, Christoph; Kohl, Sandro; Friedrich, Max; Ziebarth, Kai and Stranzinger, Enno


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Christoph Steffen

Date Deposited:

01 Jun 2015 12:08

Last Modified:

21 Mar 2016 10:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Children; Patellar instability; Screening; Trochlea dysplasia; Ultrasound




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