Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation with Multiple Jets: In Vitro Comparison of Two-dimensional PISA techniques

Zürcher, Fabian Johann; Brugger, Nicolas Jacques; Jahren, Silje Ekroll; De Marchi, Stefano; Seiler, Christian (14 July 2015). Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation with Multiple Jets: In Vitro Comparison of Two-dimensional PISA techniques (Submitted). In: Euro Echo Congress. Seville, Spain. 02.12.-05.12.2015.

Purpose: Traditionally, the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) is based on the assumption of a single hemisphere (hemispheric PISA), but this technique has not been validated for the quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) with multiple jets.

Methods: The left heart simulator was actuated by a pulsatile pump at various stroke amplitudes. The regurgitant volume (Rvol) passing through the mitral valve phantoms with single and double regurgitant orifices of varying size and interspace was quantified by a flowmeter as reference technique. Color Doppler 3-D full-volumes were obtained, and Rvol were derived from 2-D PISA surfaces on the basis of hemispheric and hemicylindric assumption with one base (partial hemicylindric PISA) or 2 bases (total hemicylindric PISA).

Results: 72 regurgitant volumes (Rvol range: 8 to 76 ml/beat) were obtained. Hemispheric PISA Rvol correlated well with reference Rvol by one orifice (R²=0.97; bias -2.7±3.2ml), but less by ≥ one orifice (R²=0.89). When a fusion of two PISAs occured, addition of two hemispheric PISA overestimated Rvol (bias 9.1±12.2ml, fig.1), and single hemispheric PISA underestimated Rvol (bias -12.4±4.9ml). If an integrated approach was used (hemispheric in single orifice, total hemicylindric in two non-fused PISAs and partial hemicylindric in two fused PISAs), the correlation was R²=0.95, bias -1.6±5.6ml (fig.2). In the ROC analysis, the cutoff to detect ≥ moderate-to-severe Rvol (≥45ml) was 42ml (AUC 0.99, sens. 100%, spec. 93%).

Conclusions: In MR with two regurgitant jets, the 2-D hemicylindric assumption of the PISA offers a better quantification of Rvol than the hemispheric assumption. Quantification of MR using 2-D PISA requires an integrated approach that considers number of regurgitant orifices and fusion of the PISAs.

Item Type:

Conference or Workshop Item (Abstract)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology
10 Strategic Research Centers > ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research

UniBE Contributor:

Zürcher, Fabian Johann, Brugger, Nicolas Jacques, Jahren, Silje Ekroll, De Marchi, Stefano, Seiler, Christian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology




Silje Ekroll Jahren

Date Deposited:

20 Jul 2015 07:36

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:48



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