Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age

Lucek, Kay Jurka Olaf; Sivasundar, Arjun; Kristjánsson, B. K.; Skúlason, S.; Seehausen, Ole (2014). Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(9), pp. 1878-1892. Wiley 10.1111/jeb.12439

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When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism in ecotypic divergence between parapatric lake and stream populations and compare the observed patterns to an ancestral-like marine population. We find strong and consistent phenotypic divergence, both among lake and stream populations and between our freshwater populations and the marine population. Interestingly, ecotypic divergence in low-dimensional phenotype space (i.e. single traits) is rapid and seems to be often completed within 100 years. Yet, the dimensionality of ecotypic divergence was highest in our oldest systems and only there parallel evolution of unrelated ecotypes was strong enough to overwrite phylogenetic contingency. Moreover, the dimensionality of divergence in different systems varies between trait complexes, suggesting different constraints and evolutionary pathways to their resolution among freshwater systems.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Ecology and Evolution (IEE)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Ecology and Evolution (IEE) > Aquatic Ecology

UniBE Contributor:

Lucek, Kay Jurka Olaf; Sivasundar, Arjun and Seehausen, Ole

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

1010-061X

Publisher:

Wiley

Language:

English

Submitter:

Marcel Häsler

Date Deposited:

21 Jul 2015 07:58

Last Modified:

08 Sep 2015 09:56

Publisher DOI:

10.1111/jeb.12439

PubMed ID:

24976108

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.70368

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/70368

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