Fluoride varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride uptake and the effect on in vitro enamel erosion

Saads Carvalho, Thiago; Bönecker, Marcelo; Altenburger, Markus J; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Lussi, Adrian (2015). Fluoride varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride uptake and the effect on in vitro enamel erosion. Clinical oral investigations, 19(6), pp. 1429-1436. Springer 10.1007/s00784-014-1363-6

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OBJECTIVES Calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) was added to fluoride varnishes to analyze their preventive effect on initial enamel erosion and fluoride uptake: potassium hydroxide (KOH)-soluble and KOH-insoluble fluoride bound to enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in two parts. Part 1: 108 enamel samples were randomly distributed into six varnish groups: base varnish (no active ingredients); Duraphat® (2.26 %NaF); Duofluorid® (5.63 %NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 1 (1 %CaGP/5.63 %NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 2 (5 %CaGP/5.63 %NaF/CaF2); and no varnish. Cyclic demineralization (90 s; citric acid, pH = 3.6) and remineralization (4 h) was made once a day, for 3 days. Change in surface microhardness (SMH) was measured. Part 2: 60 enamel samples were cut in half and received no varnish (control) or a layer of varnish: Duraphat®, Duofluorid®, experimental varnishes 1 and 2. Then, KOH-soluble and KOH-insoluble fluoride were analyzed using an electrode. RESULTS After cyclic demineralization, SMH decreased in all samples, but Duraphat® caused less hardness loss. No difference was observed between varnishes containing CaGP and the other varnishes. Similar amounts of KOH-soluble and insoluble fluoride was found in experimental varnish 1 and Duofluorid®, while lower values were found for experimental varnish 2 and Duraphat®. CONCLUSION The addition of CaGP to fluoride varnishes did not increase fluoride bound to enamel and did not enhance their protection against initial enamel erosion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE We observe that the fluoride varnishes containing CaGP do not promote greater amounts of fluoride bound to enamel and that fluoride bound to enamel may not be closely related to erosion prevention.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > School of Dental Medicine, Restorative Dentistry, Research
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Saads Carvalho, Thiago and Lussi, Adrian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Thiago Saads Carvalho

Date Deposited:

29 Jul 2015 11:40

Last Modified:

29 Jan 2016 12:51

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Topical fluorides, Calciumglycerophosphate, Enamel, Dental erosion, Fluoride varnish, Tooth demineralization





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