Quarks and a unified theory of Nature fundamental forces

Antoniadis, Ignatios (2015). Quarks and a unified theory of Nature fundamental forces. International journal of modern physics. A - particles and fields, gravitation, cosmology, 30(02), p. 1530015. World Scientific 10.1142/S0217751X1530015X

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Quarks were introduced 50 years ago opening the road towards our understanding of the elementary constituents of matter and their fundamental interactions. Since then, a spectacular progress has been made with important discoveries that led to the establishment of the Standard Theory that describes accurately the basic constituents of the observable matter, namely quarks and leptons, interacting with the exchange of three fundamental forces, the weak, electromagnetic and strong force. Particle physics is now entering a new era driven by the quest of understanding of the composition of our Universe such as the unobservable (dark) matter, the hierarchy of masses and forces, the unification of all fundamental interactions with gravity in a consistent quantum framework, and several other important questions. A candidate theory providing answers to many of these questions is string theory that replaces the notion of point particles by extended objects, such as closed and open strings. In this short note, I will give a brief overview of string unification, describe in particular how quarks and leptons can emerge and discuss what are possible predictions for particle physics and cosmology that could test these ideas.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


10 Strategic Research Centers > Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics (AEC)
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Theoretical Physics

UniBE Contributor:

Antoniadis, Ignatios


500 Science > 530 Physics




World Scientific




Esther Fiechter

Date Deposited:

28 Aug 2015 08:22

Last Modified:

21 Jan 2016 02:30

Publisher DOI:






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