Sonographic Assessment of Fetal Cardiac Function: Introduction and Direct Measurement of Cardiac Function

Tutschek, B; Schmidt, K G (2011). Sonographic Assessment of Fetal Cardiac Function: Introduction and Direct Measurement of Cardiac Function. Ultraschall in der Medizin, 33(3), pp. 236-244. Stuttgart: Thieme 10.1055/s-0029-1246087

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Noninvasive blood flow measurements based on Doppler ultrasound studies are the main clinical tool for studying the cardiovascular status in fetuses at risk for circulatory compromise. Usually, qualitative analysis of peripheral arteries and, in particular clinical situations such as severe growth restriction or volume overload, also of venous vessels close to the heart or of flow patterns in the heart are being used to gauge the level of compensation in a fetus. Quantitative assessment of the driving force of the fetal circulation, the cardiac output, however, remains an elusive goal in fetal medicine. This article reviews the methods for direct and indirect assessment of cardiac function and explains new clinical applications. Part 1 of this review describes the concept of cardiac function and cardiac output and the techniques that have been used to quantify output. Part 2 summarizes the use of arterial and venous Doppler studies in the fetus and gives a detailed description of indirect measures of cardiac function (like indices derived from the duration of segments of the cardiac cycle) with current examples of their application.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Gynaecology

UniBE Contributor:

Tutschek, Boris








Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:21

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:06

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URI: (FactScience: 212344)

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