Self-reported nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy as a predictor of viral failure and mortality.

Glass, Tracy R; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Schneider, Marie-Paule; De Geest, Sabina; Nicca, Dunja; Furrer, Hansjakob; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Rickenbach, Martin; Battegay, Manuel; Bucher, Heiner C (2015). Self-reported nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy as a predictor of viral failure and mortality. AIDS, 29(16), pp. 2195-2200. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000782

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OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on virologic failure and mortality in naive individuals starting ART. DESIGN Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS Eligible individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, started ART between 2003 and 2012, and provided adherence data on at least one biannual clinical visit. Adherence was defined as missed doses (none, one, two, or more than two) and percentage adherence (>95, 90-95, and <90) in the previous 4 weeks. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to estimate the effect of nonadherence on viral failure (HIV-1 viral load >500 copies/ml) and mortality. RESULTS Of 3150 individuals followed for a median 4.7 years, 480 (15.2%) experienced viral failure and 104 (3.3%) died, 1155 (36.6%) reported missing one dose, 414 (13.1%) two doses and, 333 (10.6%) more than two doses of ART. The risk of viral failure increased with each missed dose (one dose: hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.67; two doses: 2.15, 1.31-3.53; more than two doses: 5.21, 2.96-9.18). The risk of death increased with more than two missed doses (HR 4.87, 2.21-10.73). Missing one to two doses of ART increased the risk of viral failure in those starting once-daily (HR 1.67, 1.11-2.50) compared with those starting twice-daily regimens (HR 0.99, 0.64-1.54, interaction P = 0.09). Consistent results were found for percentage adherence. CONCLUSION Self-report of two or more missed doses of ART is associated with an increased risk of both viral failure and death. A simple adherence question helps identify patients at risk for negative clinical outcomes and offers opportunities for intervention.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology

UniBE Contributor:

Furrer, Hansjakob


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

19 Nov 2015 11:09

Last Modified:

24 Oct 2016 02:30

Publisher DOI:


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