Virologic failure and second-line antiretroviral therapy in children in South Africa--the IeDEA Southern Africa collaboration

Davies, Mary-Ann; Moultrie, Harry; Eley, Brian; Rabie, Helena; Van Cutsem, Gilles; Giddy, Janet; Wood, Robin; Technau, Karl; Keiser, Olivia; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew (2011). Virologic failure and second-line antiretroviral therapy in children in South Africa--the IeDEA Southern Africa collaboration. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes JAIDS, 56(3), pp. 270-278. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182060610

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Background: With expanding pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, children will begin to experience treatment failure and require second-line therapy. We evaluated the probability and determinants of virologic failure and switching in children in South Africa. Methods: Pooled analysis of routine individual data from children who initiated ART in 7 South African treatment programs with 6-monthly viral load and CD4 monitoring produced Kaplan-Meier estimates of probability of virologic failure (2 consecutive unsuppressed viral loads with the second being >1000 copies/mL, after ≥24 weeks of therapy) and switch to second-line. Cox-proportional hazards models stratified by program were used to determine predictors of these outcomes. Results: The 3-year probability of virologic failure among 5485 children was 19.3% (95% confidence interval: 17.6 to 21.1). Use of nevirapine or ritonavir alone in the initial regimen (compared with efavirenz) and exposure to prevention of mother to child transmission regimens were independently associated with failure [adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval): 1.77 (1.11 to 2.83), 2.39 (1.57 to 3.64) and 1.40 (1.02 to 1.92), respectively]. Among 252 children with ≥1 year follow-up after failure, 38% were switched to second-line. Median (interquartile range) months between failure and switch was 5.7 (2.9-11.0). Conclusions: Triple ART based on nevirapine or ritonavir as a single protease inhibitor seems to be associated with a higher risk of virologic failure. A low proportion of virologically failing children were switched.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Keiser, Olivia and Egger, Matthias




Lippincott Williams & Wilkins




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:22

Last Modified:

27 Sep 2017 07:28

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URI: (FactScience: 212517)

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