Pathology: Classification and Immunoprofile

Blank, Annika; Schmitt, Anja; Perren, Aurel (2015). Pathology: Classification and Immunoprofile. Frontiers of hormone research, 44, pp. 104-114. Basel: Karger 10.1159/000382135

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The classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been evolving steadily over the last decades. Important prognostic factors of NENs are their proliferative activity and presence/absence of necrosis. These factors are reported in NENs of all body sites; however, the terminology as well as the exact rules of classification differ according to the location of the primary tumor. Only in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NENs a formal grading is performed. This grading is based on proliferation assessed by the mitotic count and/or Ki-67 proliferation index. In the lung, NEN grading is an intrinsic part of the tumor designation with typical carcinoids corresponding to neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1 and atypical carcinoids to NET G2; however, the presence or absence of necrotic foci is as important as proliferation for the differentiation between typical and atypical carcinoids. Immunohistochemical markers can be used to demonstrate neuroendocrine differentiation. Synaptophysin and chromogranin A are, to date, the most reliable and most commonly used for this purpose. Beyond this, other markers can be helpful, for example in the situation of a NET metastasis of unknown primary, where a hormonal profile or a panel of transcription factors can give hints to the primary site. Many immunohistochemical markers have been shown to correlate with prognosis but are not used in clinical practice, for example cytokeratin 19 and KIT expression in pancreatic NETs. There is no predictive biomarker in use, with the exception of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 2 expression for predicting the amenability of a tumor to in vivo SSTR targeting for imaging or therapy.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology > Cytopathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology > Clinical Pathology

UniBE Contributor:

Blank, Annika; Schmitt Kurrer, Anja and Perren, Aurel

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1662-3762

ISBN:

978-3-318-02772-3

Series:

Frontiers of Hormone Research

Publisher:

Karger

Language:

English

Submitter:

Doris Haefelin

Date Deposited:

07 Dec 2015 13:26

Last Modified:

12 Sep 2017 17:13

Publisher DOI:

10.1159/000382135

PubMed ID:

26303707

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.73740

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/73740

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