Characterization of the Axial Jet Separator with a CO2/Helium Mixture: Toward GC-AMS Hyphenation

Salazar Quintero, Gary Abdiel; Agrios, Konstantinos; Eichler, R.; Szidat, Sönke (2016). Characterization of the Axial Jet Separator with a CO2/Helium Mixture: Toward GC-AMS Hyphenation. Analytical chemistry, 88(3), pp. 1647-1653. American Chemical Society 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b03586

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Development of interfaces for sample introduction from high pressures is important for real-time online hyphenation of chromatographic and other separation devices with mass spectrometry (MS) or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Momentum separators can reduce unwanted low-density gases and introduce the analyte into the vacuum. In this work, the axial jet separator, a new momentum interface, is characterized by theory and empirical optimization. The mathematical model describes the different axial penetration of the components of a jetgas mixture and explains the empirical results for injections of CO2 in helium into MS and AMS instruments. We show that the performance of the new interface is sensitive to the nozzle size, showing good qualitative agreement with the mathematical model. Smaller nozzle sizes are more preferable due to their higher inflow capacity. The CO2 transmission efficiency of the interface into a MS instrument is ~14% (CO2/helium separation factor of 2.7). The interface receives and delivers flows of ~17.5 mL/min and ~0.9 mL/min, respectively. For the interfaced AMS instrument, the ionization and overall efficiencies are 0.7-3% and 0.1-0.4%, respectively, for CO2 amounts of 4-0.6 µg C, which is only slightly lower compared to conventional systems using intermediate trapping. The ionization efficiency depends on to the carbon mass flow in the injected pulse and is suppressed at high CO2 flows. Relative to a conventional jet separator, the transmission efficiency of the axial jet separator is lower, but its performance is less sensitive to misalignments.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DCBP)

UniBE Contributor:

Salazar Quintero, Gary Abdiel, Agrios, Konstantinos, Szidat, Sönke


500 Science > 540 Chemistry




American Chemical Society




Sönke Szidat

Date Deposited:

04 Feb 2016 08:38

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:51

Publisher DOI:





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