Nasolabial symmetry and esthetics in cleft lip and palate: analysis of 3D facial images

Desmedt, Dries J; Maal, Thomas J; Kuijpers, Mette A; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Fudalej, Piotr (2015). Nasolabial symmetry and esthetics in cleft lip and palate: analysis of 3D facial images. Clinical oral investigations, 19(8), pp. 1833-1842. Springer 10.1007/s00784-015-1445-0

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OBJECTIVES To determine the relationship between nasolabial symmetry and esthetics in subjects with orofacial clefts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-four subjects (mean age 10 years, standard deviation 1.5) with various types of nonsyndromic clefts were included: 11 had unilateral cleft lip (UCL); 30 had unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (UCLA); and 43 had unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (UCLAP). A 3D stereophotogrammetric image of the face was taken for each subject. Symmetry and esthetics were evaluated on cropped 3D facial images. The degree of asymmetry of the nasolabial area was calculated based on all 3D data points using a surface registration algorithm. Esthetic ratings of various elements of nasal morphology were performed by eight lay raters on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Statistical analysis included ANOVA tests and regression models. RESULTS Nasolabial asymmetry increased with growing severity of the cleft (p = 0.029). Overall, nasolabial appearance was affected by nasolabial asymmetry; subjects with more nasolabial asymmetry were judged as having a less esthetically pleasing nasolabial area (p < 0.001). However, the relationship between nasolabial symmetry and esthetics was relatively weak in subjects with UCLAP, in whom only vermilion border esthetics was associated with asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS Nasolabial symmetry assessed with 3D facial imaging can be used as an objective measure of treatment outcome in subjects with less severe cleft deformity. In subjects with more severe cleft types, other factors may play a decisive role. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Assessment of nasolabial symmetry is a useful measure of treatment success in less severe cleft types.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Fudalej, Piotr


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

08 Mar 2016 16:49

Last Modified:

25 Jan 2017 12:15

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Cleft lip, Cleft palate, Esthetics, Face, Imaging, Morphology, Three dimensional




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