Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study.

von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina (2015). Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0138550. Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pone.0138550

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BACKGROUND

Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables.

METHODS

We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 ± 12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured.

RESULTS

Vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/l), insufficiency (50-75 nmol/l), and sufficiency (> 75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤ 0.023) or sufficient (p-values ≤ 0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings.

CONCLUSIONS

Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Clinic of General Internal Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > DCR Unit Sahli Building > Forschungsgruppe Neurologie

UniBE Contributor:

von Känel, Roland and Hindermann, Esther

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1932-6203

Publisher:

Public Library of Science

Language:

English

Submitter:

Romina Theiler

Date Deposited:

23 Feb 2016 09:44

Last Modified:

17 May 2021 09:05

Publisher DOI:

10.1371/journal.pone.0138550

PubMed ID:

26397113

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.77003

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/77003

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