New osseous soft markers for trisomy 13, 18 and 21

Achter, Annika; Hager, Thomas; Fimmers, Rolf; Gembruch, Ulrich; Müller, Annette M (2016). New osseous soft markers for trisomy 13, 18 and 21. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 294(2), pp. 251-259. Springer 10.1007/s00404-015-3971-z

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INTRODUCTION For ultrasonographic diagnosis of a fetal trisomy so-called "soft markers" (=ultrasonographically detectable morphological variants) are used. Detection of a certain number of them increases the diagnostic certainty of a fetal trisomy. Up to now there are very few diagnostically accepted osseous soft markers for trisomy. Hence potential osseous soft markers applicable for first and second trimester ultrasound screening for trisomy 21, 18 or 13 were studied. METHODS Postmortal fetal X-rays (ap, lateral) of 358 fetuses (trisomy 21: n = 109, trisomy 18: n = 46; trisomy 13: n = 38, control group: n = 165). RESULTS Not yet described but with trisomy 21 statistically associated soft markers were un-timely os sternale ossification, delayed os sacrum ossification, shortened os maxillare, reduced os maxillare-jaw-corner distance, augmented orbita height, premature os calcaneus ossification, bell-shaped thorax, coronal clefts, trend to wider binocular as well as wider intraocular distances; for trisomy 18: elevated clavicula slope, reduced number of ribs, bell-shaped thorax, coronal clefts, reduced os maxillare-jaw-corner distance, shortened ramus mandibulare, shortened os metacarpale IV and V, augmented ratio between biparietal diameter and (osseus and soft-tissue) shoulder width; for trisomy 13: longer os nasale, elevated clavicula slope, premature sternum, delayed os sacrum ossification, delayed/premature cranium ossification, reduced number of ribs, coronal clefts, reduced os maxillare-jaw-corner distance, shortened ramus mandibulare, augmented orbita height, shortened os metacarpale V and a tendency for a shortened os metacarpale IV. CONCLUSION We found several not yet published osseous soft markers statistically associated with trisomy 21, 18 and 13, which can help to ensure sonographically these aneuploidy diagnoses.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Clinic of General Internal Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Achter, Annika


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Jacques Donzé

Date Deposited:

29 Mar 2016 15:51

Last Modified:

31 Jan 2017 14:35

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Fetal X-rays; Osseous soft marker; Trisomy 13; Trisomy 18; Trisomy 21




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