Tuberculosis in Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Diagnosis and Screening Practices.

Ballif, Marie; Renner, Lorna; Claude Dusingize, Jean; Leroy, Valeriane; Ayaya, Samuel; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Cortes, Claudia P; McGowan, Catherine C; Graber, Claire; Mandalakas, Anna M; Mofenson, Lynne M; Egger, Matthias; Kumara Wati, Ketut Dewi; Nallusamy, Revathy; Reubenson, Gary; Davies, Mary-Ann; Fenner, Lukas (2015). Tuberculosis in Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Diagnosis and Screening Practices. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 4(1), pp. 30-38. Oxford University Press 10.1093/jpids/piu020

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BACKGROUND The global burden of childhood tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be 0.5 million new cases per year. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at high risk for TB. Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected children remains a major challenge. METHODS We describe TB diagnosis and screening practices of pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. We used web-based questionnaires to collect data on ART programs and patients seen from March to July 2012. Forty-three ART programs treating children in 23 countries participated in the study. RESULTS Sputum microscopy and chest Radiograph were available at all programs, mycobacterial culture in 40 (93%) sites, gastric aspiration in 27 (63%), induced sputum in 23 (54%), and Xpert MTB/RIF in 16 (37%) sites. Screening practices to exclude active TB before starting ART included contact history in 41 sites (84%), symptom screening in 38 (88%), and chest Radiograph in 34 sites (79%). The use of diagnostic tools was examined among 146 children diagnosed with TB during the study period. Chest Radiograph was used in 125 (86%) children, sputum microscopy in 76 (52%), induced sputum microscopy in 38 (26%), gastric aspirate microscopy in 35 (24%), culture in 25 (17%), and Xpert MTB/RIF in 11 (8%) children. CONCLUSIONS Induced sputum and Xpert MTB/RIF were infrequently available to diagnose childhood TB, and screening was largely based on symptom identification. There is an urgent need to improve the capacity of ART programs in low- and middle-income countries to exclude and diagnose TB in HIV-infected children.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Ballif, Marie; Graber, Claire; Egger, Matthias and Fenner, Lukas

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services

ISSN:

2048-7207

Publisher:

Oxford University Press

Language:

English

Submitter:

Doris Kopp Heim

Date Deposited:

12 Feb 2016 10:07

Last Modified:

30 Oct 2019 19:07

Publisher DOI:

10.1093/jpids/piu020

PubMed ID:

26407355

Uncontrolled Keywords:

HIV low-income countries pediatric survey tuberculosis.

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.77374

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/77374

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