Materials properties from electron density distributions: Molecular magnetism and linear optical properties

Rezende dos Santos, Leonardo Humberto (2016). Materials properties from electron density distributions: Molecular magnetism and linear optical properties. (Dissertation, Universität Bern, Philosophisch-naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät)

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The general goal of this thesis is correlating observable properties of organic and metal-organic materials with their ground-state electron density distribution. In a long-term view, we expect to develop empirical or semi-empirical approaches to predict materials properties from the electron density of their building blocks, thus allowing to rationally engineering molecular materials from their constituent subunits, such as their functional groups. In particular, we have focused on linear optical properties of naturally occurring amino acids and their organic and metal-organic derivatives, and on magnetic properties of metal-organic frameworks. For analysing the optical properties and the magnetic behaviour of the molecular or sub-molecular building blocks in materials, we mostly used the more traditional QTAIM partitioning scheme of the molecular or crystalline electron densities, however, we have also investigated a new approach, namely, X-ray Constrained Extremely Localized Molecular Orbitals (XC-ELMO), that can be used in future to extracted the electron densities of crystal subunits. With the purpose of rationally engineering linear optical materials, we have calculated atomic and functional group polarizabilities of amino acid molecules, their hydrogen-bonded aggregates and their metal-organic frameworks. This has enabled the identification of the most efficient functional groups, able to build-up larger electric susceptibilities in crystals, as well as the quantification of the role played by intermolecular interactions and coordinative bonds on modifying the polarizability of the isolated building blocks. Furthermore, we analysed the dependence of the polarizabilities on the one-electron basis set and the many-electron Hamiltonian. This is useful for selecting the most efficient level of theory to estimate susceptibilities of molecular-based materials. With the purpose of rationally design molecular magnetic materials, we have investigated the electron density distributions and the magnetism of two copper(II) pyrazine nitrate metal-organic polymers. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations were used to characterize the magnetic exchange pathways and to establish relationships between the electron densities and the exchange-coupling constants. Moreover, molecular orbital and spin-density analyses were employed to understand the role of different magnetic exchange mechanisms in determining the bulk magnetic behaviour of these materials. As anticipated, we have finally investigated a modified version of the X-ray constrained wavefunction technique, XC-ELMOs, that is not only a useful tool for determination and analysis of experimental electron densities, but also enables one to derive transferable molecular orbitals strictly localized on atoms, bonds or functional groups. In future, we expect to use XC-ELMOs to predict materials properties of large systems, currently challenging to calculate from first-principles, such as macromolecules or polymers. Here, we point out advantages, needs and pitfalls of the technique. This work fulfils, at least partially, the prerequisites to understand materials properties of organic and metal-organic materials from the perspective of the electron density distribution of their building blocks. Empirical or semi-empirical evaluation of optical or magnetic properties from a preconceived assembling of building blocks could be extremely important for rationally design new materials, a field where accurate but expensive first-principles calculations are generally not used. This research could impact the community in the fields of crystal engineering, supramolecular chemistry and, of course, electron density analysis.

Item Type:

Thesis (Dissertation)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Departement of Chemistry and Biochemistry

UniBE Contributor:

Rezende dos Santos, Leonardo Humberto and Macchi, Piero

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
500 Science > 540 Chemistry

Language:

English

Submitter:

Igor Hammer

Date Deposited:

15 Feb 2016 12:50

Last Modified:

15 Feb 2016 12:50

URN:

urn:nbn:ch:bel-bes-1954

Additional Information:

e-Dissertation (edbe)

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.77611

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/77611

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