The Gut Microbiome and Cirrhosis: Basic Aspects

Wiest, Reiner (2015). The Gut Microbiome and Cirrhosis: Basic Aspects. In: de Franchis, Roberto (ed.) Portal Hypertension VI. Proceedings of the Sixth Baveno Consensus Workshop: Stratifying Risk and Individualizing Care (pp. 139-168). Cham: Springer 10.1007/978-3-319-23018-4_18

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In this chapter the basic aspects helping to understand the microbiome in terms of quantity, diversity, complexity, function, and interaction with the host are discussed. First the nomenclature, definitions of taxa, and measures of diversity as well as methods to unravel this kingdom are outlined. A brief summary on its physiological relevance for general health and the functions exerted specifically by the microbiome is presented. Differences in the composition of the microbiome along the gastrointestinal tract and across the gut wall and its interindividual variations, enterotypes, and stability are highlighted. The reader will be familiarized with all different modulators impacting on the microbiome, namely, intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors include gastrointestinal secretions (gastric acid, bile, pancreatic juice, mucus), antimicrobial peptides, motility, enteric nervous system, and host genotype. Extrinsic factors are mainly dietary choices, hygiene, stress, alcohol consumption, exercise, and medications. The second part of the chapter focuses on quantitative and qualitative changes in microbiome in liver cirrhosis. The mechanisms contributing to dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and bacterial translocation are delineated underscoring their role for the liver-gut axis.

Item Type:

Book Section (Book Chapter)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gastro-intestinal, Liver and Lung Disorders (DMLL) > Clinic of Visceral Surgery and Medicine > Gastroenterology

UniBE Contributor:

Wiest, Reiner


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Lilian Karin Smith-Wirth

Date Deposited:

04 Apr 2016 13:49

Last Modified:

07 Apr 2016 15:55

Publisher DOI:





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