Less invasive ventilation in extremely low birth weight infants from 1997 to 2011: survey versus evidence.

Gerull, Roland; Manser, Helen; Küster, Helmut; Arenz, Tina; Arenz, Stephan; Nelle, Mathias (2015). Less invasive ventilation in extremely low birth weight infants from 1997 to 2011: survey versus evidence. European journal of pediatrics, 174(9), pp. 1189-1196. Springer 10.1007/s00431-015-2519-3

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UNLABELLED Evidence for target values of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), CO2, and pH has changed substantially over the last 20 years. A representative survey concerning treatment strategies in extremely low-birth-weight infants (ELBW) was sent to all German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) treating ELBW infants in 1997. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2011 and sent to all NICUs in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. During the observation period, NICUs targeting SaO2 of 80, 85, and 90 % have increased, while units aiming for 94 and 96 % decreased (all p < 0.001). Similarly, NICUs aiming for pH 7.25 or lower increased, while 7.35 or higher decreased (both p < 0.001). Furthermore, more units targeted a CO2 of 50 mmHg (7.3 kPa) or higher (p < 0.001), while fewer targeted 40 or 35 mmHg (p < 0.001). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was used in 80.2 % of NICUs in 2011. The most frequently used ventilation modes were synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) (67.5 %) and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) (59.7 %) in 1997 and SIMV (77.2 %) and synchronized intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SIPPV) (26.8 %) in 2011. NICUs reporting frequent or always use of IPPV decreased to 11.0 % (p < 0.001). SIMV (77.2 %) and SIPPV (26.8 %) did not change from 1997 to 2011, while high-frequency oscillation (HFO) increased from 9.1 to 19.7 % (p = 0.018). Differences between countries, level of care, and size of the NICU were minimal. CONCLUSIONS Target values for SaO2 decreased, while CO2 and pH increased significantly during the observation period. Current values largely reflect available evidence at time of the surveys. WHAT IS KNOWN • Evidence concerning target values of oxygen saturation, CO 2 , and pH in extremely low-birth-weight infants has grown substantially. • It is not known to which extent this knowledge is transferred into clinical practice and if treatment strategies have changed. WHAT IS NEW • Target values for oxygen saturation in ELBW infants decreased between 1997 and 2011 while target values for CO 2 and pH increased. • Similar treatment strategies existed in different countries, hospitals of different size, or university versus nonuniversity hospitals in 2011.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Endocrinology (DFKE) > Clinic of Paediatric Medicine

UniBE Contributor:

Gerull, Roland; Arenz, Stephan and Nelle, Mathias


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








André Schaller

Date Deposited:

08 Apr 2016 11:05

Last Modified:

08 Apr 2016 11:05

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