The consequences of social intolerance on non-violent protest behavior

Rapp, Carolin; Ackermann, Kathrin (2016). The consequences of social intolerance on non-violent protest behavior. European political science review, 8(04), pp. 1-22. Cambridge University Press 10.1017/S1755773915000211

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This paper scrutinizes the impact of intolerance toward diverse ethnic, religious, and cultural groups on an individuals willingness to actively engage in non-violent protest. Following new insights, we examine the individual as well as the ecological effect of social intolerance on protest behavior. Drawing from insights of social psychology and communication science, we expect that the prevalence of intolerance reinforces the positive effect of individual-level intolerance on protest participation. From a rational choice perspective, however, a negative moderating effect is expected, as the expression of opinions becomes redundant for intolerant individuals in an intolerant society. We base our multilevel analyses on data from the World Values Surveys covering 32 established democracies. Our results reveal that intolerance leads to more non-violent protest participation. This relationship, however, is strongly influenced by the prevalence of intolerance in a country.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


03 Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences > Social Sciences > Institute of Political Science

UniBE Contributor:

Rapp, Carolin and Ackermann, Kathrin Maria


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 320 Political science




Cambridge University Press




Kathrin Maria Ackermann

Date Deposited:

18 Apr 2016 08:19

Last Modified:

02 Oct 2016 02:07

Publisher DOI:





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