Improving 4D plan quality for PBS-based liver tumour treatments by combining online image guided beam gating with rescanning.

Zhang, Ye; Knopf, Antje-Christin; Weber, Damien Charles; Lomax, Antony John (2015). Improving 4D plan quality for PBS-based liver tumour treatments by combining online image guided beam gating with rescanning. Physics in medicine and biology, 60(20), pp. 8141-8159. Institute of Physics Publishing IOP 10.1088/0031-9155/60/20/8141

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Pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy has many advantages over conventional radiotherapy, but its effectiveness for treating mobile tumours remains questionable. Gating dose delivery to the breathing pattern is a well-developed method in conventional radiotherapy for mitigating tumour-motion, but its clinical efficiency for PBS proton therapy is not yet well documented. In this study, the dosimetric benefits and the treatment efficiency of beam gating for PBS proton therapy has been comprehensively evaluated. A series of dedicated 4D dose calculations (4DDC) have been performed on 9 different 4DCT(MRI) liver data sets, which give realistic 4DCT extracting motion information from 4DMRI. The value of 4DCT(MRI) is its capability of providing not only patient geometries and deformable breathing characteristics, but also includes variations in the breathing patterns between breathing cycles. In order to monitor target motion and derive a gating signal, we simulate time-resolved beams' eye view (BEV) x-ray images as an online motion surrogate. 4DDCs have been performed using three amplitude-based gating window sizes (10/5/3 mm) with motion surrogates derived from either pre-implanted fiducial markers or the diaphragm. In addition, gating has also been simulated in combination with up to 19 times rescanning using either volumetric or layered approaches. The quality of the resulting 4DDC plans has been quantified in terms of the plan homogeneity index (HI), total treatment time and duty cycle. Results show that neither beam gating nor rescanning alone can fully retrieve the plan homogeneity of the static reference plan. Especially for variable breathing patterns, reductions of the effective duty cycle to as low as 10% have been observed with the smallest gating rescanning window (3 mm), implying that gating on its own for such cases would result in much longer treatment times. In addition, when rescanning is applied on its own, large differences between volumetric and layered rescanning have been observed as a function of increasing number of re-scans. However, once gating and rescanning is combined, HI to within 2% of the static plan could be achieved in the clinical target volume, with only moderately prolonged treatment times, irrespective of the rescanning strategy used. Moreover, these results are independent of the motion surrogate used. In conclusion, our results suggest image guided beam gating, combined with rescanning, is a feasible, effective and efficient motion mitigation approach for PBS-based liver tumour treatments.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Radiation Oncology

UniBE Contributor:

Weber, Damien Charles


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Institute of Physics Publishing IOP




Beatrice Scheidegger

Date Deposited:

11 Apr 2016 08:29

Last Modified:

11 Apr 2016 08:29

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