Prochloraz causes irreversible masculinization of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Baumann, Lisa Annie; Knörr, Susanne; Keiter, Susanne; Nagel, Tina; Segner, Helmut; Braunbeck, Thomas (2015). Prochloraz causes irreversible masculinization of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environmental science and pollution research, 22(21), pp. 16417-16422. Springer 10.1007/s11356-014-3486-3

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the persistence of endocrine effects by prochloraz, a fungicide known to have multiple effects on the endocrine system of vertebrates. Since discontinuous exposure is particularly relevant in aquatic ecosystems, an exposure scenario with an exposure phase and a subsequent recovery period was chosen to assess the potential for reversibility of effects by prochloraz on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of prochloraz (10-300 μg/L) until 60 days post hatch (dph), which includes the period of sexual differentiation. For the subsequent 40 days, fish were either held in clean water for depuration or under further continuous exposure. Histological investigations of the gonads revealed persistent effects on sexual differentiation. The sex ratio was skewed towards males and significantly more intersex individuals were found after exposure to prochloraz at 60 dph. No intersex fish, but masculinized sex ratios were still present after the depuration period, documenting that prochloraz irreversibly affects the sexual development of zebrafish.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Center for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI)

UniBE Contributor:

Baumann, Lisa Annie and Segner, Helmut


600 Technology > 630 Agriculture








Lucia Gugger-Raaflaub

Date Deposited:

19 Apr 2016 09:38

Last Modified:

19 Apr 2016 09:38

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Aromatase inhibitor; Endocrine disruptor; Fungicide; Gonad histology; Sexual differentiation; Zebrafish




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