Emergence of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance has almost been stopped in Switzerland - a 15 year prospective cohort analysis

Scherrer, Alexandra U; von Wyl, Viktor; Yang, Wan-Lin; Kouyos, Roger; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Battegay, Manuel; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Vernazza, Pietro; Bernasconi, Enos; Günthard, Huldrych F (2016). Emergence of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance has almost been stopped in Switzerland - a 15 year prospective cohort analysis. Clinical infectious diseases, 62(10), pp. 1310-1317. Oxford University Press 10.1093/cid/ciw128

1310.full.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (495kB) | Preview


Drug resistance is a major barrier to successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). Therefore, it is important to monitor time trends at a population level.


We included 11,084 ART-experienced patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) between 1999 and 2013. The SHCS is highly representative and includes 72% of patients receiving ART in Switzerland. Drug resistance was defined as the presence of at least one major mutation in a genotypic resistance test. To estimate the prevalence of drug resistance, data for patients with no resistance test was imputed based on patient's risk of harboring drug resistant viruses.


The emergence of new drug resistance mutations declined dramatically from 401 to 23 patients between 1999 and 2013. The upper estimated prevalence limit of drug resistance among ART-experienced patients decreased from 57.0% in 1999 to 37.1% in 2013. The prevalence of three-class resistance decreased from 9.0% to 4.4% and was always <0.4% for patients who initiated ART after 2006. Most patients actively participating in the SHCS in 2013 with drug resistant viruses initiated ART before 1999 (59.8%). Nevertheless, in 2013, 94.5% of patients who initiated ART before 1999 had good remaining treatment options based on Stanford algorithm.


HIV-1 drug resistance among ART-experienced patients in Switzerland is a well-controlled relic from the pre-combination ART era. Emergence of drug resistance can be virtually stopped with new potent therapies and close monitoring.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

von Wyl, Viktor, Furrer, Hansjakob


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services




Oxford University Press




Annelies Luginbühl

Date Deposited:

07 Jun 2016 16:06

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:54

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

HIV-1 drug resistance; antiretroviral activity; emergence; prevalence; treatment-experienced patients





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback