Sulfur Isotopic Ratios at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Characterization of ROSINA-DFMS FM & FS

Calmonte, Ursina Maria (2015). Sulfur Isotopic Ratios at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Characterization of ROSINA-DFMS FM & FS. (Dissertation, Universität Bern, Philosophisch-naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Physikalisches Institut)

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Comets are thought to be the most pristine bodies present in the Solar System. In consequence of spending the majority of their existence beyond 30 AU, their composition can give insights on the physical and chemical conditions during their formation. Since August 2014 the European Space Agency spacecraft Rosetta accompanies the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on its way to perihelion and beyond. In this study the isotope fractionation of 34S are reported in H2S, OCS, SO2, S2, and CS2 at 67P. In addition for the first time the isotope fractionation for 33S is presented for cometary volatiles. The ratio 32S/33S is given for H2S, SO2 and a tentative value is given for CS2. With a mean value of -50 ± 22‰ and -306 ± 31‰ for δ34S and δ33S respectively, H2S shows a significant depletion in both 34S and 33S. For SO2 the depletion is less distinct with δ34S and δ33S being -67 ± 40‰ and -130 ± 53‰, respectively. The strongest depletion is present for CS2 with -114 ± 21‰and -276 ± 55‰, respectively. For OCS and S2 only δ34S could be determined which is -252 ± 77‰ and -357 ± 145‰, respectively. A comparison with sulfur isotopic ratios measured in SiC grains revealed that both SiC grains and the five volatile species have similar sulfur isotopic ratios. However, it is beyond the scope of this work to investigate the possibility of a link between SiC grains and cometary ices. Nevertheless, mass-dependent or mass-independent fractionation due to photo dissociation can be ruled out as sole cause of the seen depletion of 33S and 34S. Furthermore, an upper limit of (9.64 ± 0.19)·10.4 for D/H in HDS has been determined. This value is about a factor two higher than D/H in H2O for the same comet reported by (Altwegg et al., 2015). Besides the investigation concerning isotopic ratios of sulfur bearing species in this work the calibration and characterization of ROSINA/DFMS has been continued. Here it is reported about the deviation of the mass scale for MCP/LEDA low resolution spectra and the calibration measurements performed in the laboratory. Furthermore the outcome of the attempt to describe the sensitivity of DFMS with an empirical function will be discussed. The last part of the characterization of DFMS is dedicated to determine the so-called individual pixel gain for the laboratory and the flight model. Moreover, correlation between the depletion’s manifestation of the MCP with respect to the applied voltages has been investigated for both models. It has been found that further measurements are needed to understand the manifestation of depletion at the laboratory model. For the model on board of Rosetta it could be shown that most of the present feature are due to the usage of the MCP and suggestions have been made in order to answer the remaining question considering the depletion of the MCP.

Item Type:

Thesis (Dissertation)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Space Research and Planetary Sciences

UniBE Contributor:

Calmonte, Ursina Maria and Altwegg, Kathrin

Subjects:

500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 520 Astronomy
600 Technology > 620 Engineering

Language:

English

Submitter:

Igor Hammer

Date Deposited:

19 Apr 2016 15:47

Last Modified:

19 Apr 2016 15:57

URN:

urn:nbn:ch:bel-bes-2129

Additional Information:

e-Dissertation (edbe)

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Comets, Early solar system, ROSINA

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.81279

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/81279

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