An anatomical investigation of the cervicothoracic ganglion

Marcer, N; Bergman, Manfred Max; Klie, A; Moor, B; Djonov, V (2012). An anatomical investigation of the cervicothoracic ganglion. Clinical anatomy, 25(4), pp. 444-51. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell 10.1002/ca.21266

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)

Anatomical variability within the autonomic nervous system has long been accepted. This study evaluated the anatomical variability of the cervicothoracic ganglion (CTG) according to its form and, in addition, provided precise measurements between the CTG and the anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra (C6TP), the first costovertebral articulation, and the vertebral artery. Forty-two adult cadavers were dissected, 22 male and 20 females. Five main forms of CTG were documented; spindle (31.9%), dumbbell (23.2%), truncated (21.7%), perforated (14.5%), and inverted-L (8.7%). The means for length, width, and thickness of the CTG were 18.5 mm, 8.2 mm, and 4.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions were found to be slightly larger in the males than females and on the left sides as compared to the right. The mean shortest distance between the CTGs and the vertebral artery was found to be 2.8 mm, whilst the mean shortest distances to C6TP was 25.7 mm and to the first costovertebral articulation was 1.7 mm. There is great variability in the morphology of the CTG with five common forms consistently seen. The relation to the vertebral artery may influence the form of the ganglion. Two previously undocumented forms are recorded; the truncated which describes the important juxtaposition of the CTG and the vertebral artery and the perforated which describes the piercing of the ganglion itself by the artery. The findings are considered to be of clinical importance to anesthetists, surgeons, neurosurgeons, and anatomists.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Anatomy

UniBE Contributor:

Bergman, Manfred Max and Djonov, Valentin Georgiev


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:23

Last Modified:

24 Dec 2020 10:08

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Web of Science ID:


URI: (FactScience: 213615)

Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback