Effects of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine on N-demethylation of ketamine in canines determined in vitro using enantioselective capillary electrophoresis.

Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Theurillat, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang (2015). Effects of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine on N-demethylation of ketamine in canines determined in vitro using enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 36(21-22), pp. 2703-2712. Wiley-VCH 10.1002/elps.201500147

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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyze the metabolism of both, the analgesic and anesthetic drug ketamine and the α2 -adrenergic receptor-agonist medetomidine that is used for sedation and analgesia. As racemic medetomidine or its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine are often coadministered with racemic or S-ketamine in animals and dexmedetomidine together with S- or racemic ketamine in humans, drug-drug interactions are likely to occur and have to be characterized. Enantioselective CE with highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector was employed for analyzing in vitro (i) the kinetics of the N-demethylation of ketamine mediated by canine CYP3A12 and (ii) interactions occurring with racemic medetomidine and dexmedetomidine during coincubation with ketamine and canine liver microsomes (CLM), canine CYP3A12, human liver microsomes (HLM), and human CYP3A4. For CYP3A12 without an inhibitor, Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined for the single enantiomers of ketamine and substrate inhibition kinetics for racemic ketamine. Racemic medetomidine and dexmedetomidine showed an inhibition of the N-demethylation reaction in the studied canine enzyme systems. Racemic medetomidine is the stronger inhibitor for CLM, whereas there is no difference for CYP3A12. For CLM and CYP3A12, the inhibition of dexmedetomidine is stronger for the R- compared to the S-enantiomer of ketamine, a stereoselectivity that is not observed for CYP3A4. Induction is observed at a low dexmedetomidine concentration with CYP3A4 but not with CYP3A12, CLM, and HLM. Based on these results, S-ketamine combined with dexmedetomidine should be the best option for canines. The enantioselective CE assay with highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector is an effective tool for determining kinetic and inhibition parameters of metabolic pathways.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute for Infectious Diseases > Laboratory for Clinical Pharmacology

UniBE Contributor:

Thormann, Wolfgang

ISSN:

0173-0835

Publisher:

Wiley-VCH

Language:

English

Submitter:

Wolfgang Thormann

Date Deposited:

02 May 2016 11:55

Last Modified:

02 May 2016 11:55

Publisher DOI:

10.1002/elps.201500147

PubMed ID:

26104860

Uncontrolled Keywords:

CYP3A12, Capillary electrophoresis, Dexmedetomidine, Ketamine, Liver microsomes, Medetomidine

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.81582

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/81582

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