Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders.

Kalla, Roger; Teufel, Julian; Feil, Katharina; Muth, Caroline; Strupp, Michael (2016). Update on the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders. Journal of neurology, 263(Suppl1), S24-S29. Springer-Medizin-Verlag 10.1007/s00415-015-7987-x

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An overview of the current pharmacotherapy of central vestibular syndromes and the most common forms of central nystagmus as well as cerebellar disorders is given. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is recommended for the treatment of downbeat nystagmus, a frequent form of acquired persisting fixation nystagmus, and upbeat nystagmus. Animal studies showed that this non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels increases Purkinje cell excitability and normalizes the irregular firing rate, so that the inhibitory influence of the cerebellar cortex on vestibular and deep cerebellar nuclei is restored. The efficacy of 4-AP in episodic ataxia type 2, which is most often caused by mutations of the PQ-calcium channel, was demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial. It was also shown in an animal model (the tottering mouse) of episodic ataxia type 2. In a case series, chlorzoxazone, a non-selective activator of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, was shown to reduce the DBN. The efficacy of acetyl-DL-leucine as a potential new symptomatic treatment for cerebellar diseases has been demonstrated in three case series. The ongoing randomized controlled trials on episodic ataxia type 2 (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. acetazolamide vs. placebo; EAT2TREAT), vestibular migraine with metoprolol (PROVEMIG-trial), cerebellar gait disorders (sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine vs. placebo; FACEG) and cerebellar ataxia (acetyl-DL-leucine vs. placebo; ALCAT) will provide new insights into the pharmacotherapy of cerebellar and central vestibular disorders.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Neurology

UniBE Contributor:

Kalla, Roger

Subjects:

600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0340-5354

Publisher:

Springer-Medizin-Verlag

Language:

English

Submitter:

Stefanie Hetzenecker

Date Deposited:

19 Sep 2016 10:19

Last Modified:

23 Sep 2017 09:47

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s00415-015-7987-x

PubMed ID:

27083881

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Aminopyridines; Central vestibular disorders; Cerebellar ataxia; Downbeat nystagmus; Episodic ataxia type 2; Vestibular migraine

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.87788

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/87788

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