Selection and Breeding of Suitable Crop Genotypes for Drought and Heat Periods in a Changing Climate: Which Morphological and Physiological Properties Should Be Considered?

Simova Stoilova, Lyudmila; Vassileva, Valya Nikolova; Feller, Urs (2016). Selection and Breeding of Suitable Crop Genotypes for Drought and Heat Periods in a Changing Climate: Which Morphological and Physiological Properties Should Be Considered? Agriculture, 6(2), p. 26. MDPI 10.3390/agriculture6020026

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Selection and breeding of genotypes with improved drought/heat tolerance become key issues in the course of global change with predicted increased frequency of droughts or heat waves. Several morphological and physiological plant traits must be considered. Rooting depth, root branching, nutrient acquisition, mycorrhization, nodulation in legumes and the release of nutrients, assimilates or phytohormones to the shoot are relevant in root systems. Xylem embolism and its repair after a drought, development of axillary buds and solute channeling via xylem (acropetal) and phloem (basipetal and acropetal) are key processes in the stem. The photosynthetically active biomass depends on leaf expansion and senescence. Cuticle thickness and properties, epicuticular waxes, stomatal regulation including responses to phytohormones, stomatal plugs and mesophyll resistance are involved in optimizing leaf water relations. Aquaporins, dehydrins, enzymes involved in the metabolism of compatible solutes (e.g., proline) and Rubisco activase are examples for proteins involved in heat or drought susceptibility. Assimilate redistribution from leaves to maturing fruits via the phloem influences yield quantity and quality. Proteomic analyses allow a deeper insight into the network of stress responses and may serve as a basis to identify suitable genotypes, although improved stress tolerance will have its price (often lowered productivity under optimal conditions).

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS) > Plant nutrition (discontinued)
10 Strategic Research Centers > Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR)
08 Faculty of Science > Other Institutions > Emeriti, Faculty of Science
08 Faculty of Science > Department of Biology > Institute of Plant Sciences (IPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Simova Stoilova, Lyudmila; Vassileva, Valya Nikolova and Feller, Urs

Subjects:

500 Science > 580 Plants (Botany)

ISSN:

2077-0472

Publisher:

MDPI

Language:

English

Submitter:

Monika Wälti-Stampfli

Date Deposited:

13 Sep 2016 13:07

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2017 14:17

Publisher DOI:

10.3390/agriculture6020026

Uncontrolled Keywords:

drought; heat; climate change; crop genotypes; morphology; physiology; stress susceptibility; assimilate allocation; yield

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.88075

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/88075

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