Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects

Broekmann, P.; Flügel, A.; Emnet, C.; Arnold, M.; Roeger-Goepfert, C.; Wagner, A.; Hai, N.T.M.; Mayer, D. (2011). Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects. Electrochimica acta, 56(13), pp. 4724-4734. Kidlington, UK: Elsevier Science 10.1016/j.electacta.2011.03.015

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Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential Transient measurements. These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). While the type-I suppressor selectively forms efficient barriers for copper inter-diffusion on chloride-terminated electrode surfaces we identified a type-II suppressor that interacts non-selectively with any kind of anions chemisorbed on copper (chloride, sulfate, sulfonate). Type-I suppressors are vital for the superconformal copper growth mode in Damascene processing and show an antagonistic interaction with SPS (Bis-Sodium-Sulfopropyl-Disulfide) which involves the deactivation of this suppressor chemistry. This suppressor deactivation is rationalized in terms of compositional changes in the layer of the chemisorbed anions due to the competition of chloride and MPS (Mercaptopropane Sulfonic Acid) for adsorption sites on the metallic copper surface. MPS is the product of the dissociative SPS adsorption within the preexisting chloride matrix on the copper surface. The non-selectivity in the adsorption behavior of the type-II suppressor is rationalized in terms of anion/cation pairing effects of the poly-cationic suppressor and the anion-modified copper substrate. Atomic-scale insights into the competitive Cl/MPS adsorption are gained from in situ STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) using single crystalline copper surfaces as model substrates. Type-III suppressors are a third class of suppressors. In case of type-land type-II suppressor chemistries the resulting steady-state deposition conditions are completely independent on the particular succession of additive adsorption. In contrast to that a strong dependence of the suppressing capabilities on the sequence of additive adsorption ("first comes, first serves" principle) is observed for the type-IIIsuppressor. This behavior:is explained by a suppressor barrier that impedes not only the copper inter-diffusion but also the transport of other additives (e.g. SPS) to the copper surface. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Departement of Chemistry and Biochemistry

UniBE Contributor:

Broekmann, Peter

ISSN:

0013-4686

Publisher:

Elsevier Science

Language:

English

Submitter:

Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:26

Last Modified:

17 Mar 2015 21:07

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/j.electacta.2011.03.015

Web of Science ID:

000291524000004

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/9184 (FactScience: 214866)

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