Comparison of ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured materials from Echinococcus granulosus by measuring expression levels of five genes putatively involved in the development and maturation of adult worms

Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Mehdi; Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia; Taheri, Elham; Almani, Pooya Ghaseminejad; Tohidi, Farideh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Gottstein, Bruno (2016). Comparison of ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured materials from Echinococcus granulosus by measuring expression levels of five genes putatively involved in the development and maturation of adult worms. Parasitology research, 115(11), pp. 4405-4416. Springer 10.1007/s00436-016-5228-6

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Parts of the natural life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus can be retraced in vitro such as the development of protoscoleces into semiadult worms with three or more proglottids, or the redifferentiation of in vitro cultured protoscoleces into metacestode-like cystic structures. Most in vitro generated samples share-at the microscopical level-high similarities with those naturally grown, but developmental differences have also been documented, such as missing egg production in in vitro grown adults or unusual bladder/vesicle formation in protoscoleces cultured into the metacestode direction. The aim of the present study was to explore how far different in vitro generated stage-specific materials/structures match the natural situation on the transcriptome level, based on testing five exemplarily chosen different genes: the frizzled receptor eg-fz4 (posterior marker), the FGF receptor-like factor eg-fgfrl (anterior association), the cell differentiation protein eg-rcd1 (part of the CCR4-NOT complex, a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression), the rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma serin/threonin kinase eg-braf (part of the MAPK pathway involved, e.g., in EGF signaling) and the co-smad eg-smadD (downstream factor of TGFβ/BMP2/activin signaling). These genes-tested via qPCR-were selected such as to allow a discussion on their potential role in the development of E. granulosus into the adult stage. Thus, testing took place with three ex vivo isolated samples, namely (i) egg-containing adult worms, (ii) invaginated protoscoleces, and (iii) protoscolex-free germinal layer tissue. Respective data were compared (a) with in vitro generated metacestode-like microcysts developed from protoscolices, and (b) different development stages of protoscoleces in vitro cultured toward adult maturation. As a finding, only eg-smadD and partially eg-fz4 showed high expression similarities between ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured E. granulosus, thus suggesting a putative role in adult maturation. Conclusively, the fact of using "only" five genes did not allow answering the question if ex vivo and in vitro materials are similar on the transcriptome level. Another experimental restriction arises from different growth conditions of the in vitro cultured materials, and comparing these to the ex vivo harvested ones. Future experiments may solve the problems by using fully standardized E. granulosus sample collection and fully standardized culture conditions.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Parasitology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)

UniBE Contributor:

Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia and Gottstein, Bruno

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

0932-0113

Publisher:

Springer

Language:

English

Submitter:

Bruno Gottstein

Date Deposited:

13 Mar 2017 11:38

Last Modified:

13 Mar 2017 11:46

Publisher DOI:

10.1007/s00436-016-5228-6

PubMed ID:

27515372

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Cystic echinococcosis; Developmental genes; Echinococcus granulosus; In vitro cultivation; Real-time qPCR

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.92263

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/92263

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