Vitreal Cytokine Profile Differences Between Eyes With Epiretinal Membranes or Macular Holes.

Zandi, Souska; Tappeiner, Christoph; Pfister, Isabel B; Despont, Alain; Rieben, Robert; Garweg, Justus (2016). Vitreal Cytokine Profile Differences Between Eyes With Epiretinal Membranes or Macular Holes. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 57(14), pp. 6320-6326. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology 10.1167/iovs.16-20657

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Cytokines play an important role in cell signaling in inflammatory and repair processes, also within the posterior segment of the eye. These molecules are thus implicated in the pathophysiology of several vitreoretinal diseases. In the present study, we compared vitreal cytokine profiles in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs) and idiopathic full-thickness macular holes (MHs) without epiretinal membranes.


Native vitreal humor was collected during elective pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of macular pathologies (group 1: ERM; group 2: MH) from patients without any other ocular or systemic disease. The concentrations of 43 chemokines and cytokines were measured in parallel by multiplex beads analysis. Intergroup comparisons were conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test and Bonferroni's correction, at a level of significance of P < 0.0012.


Vitreal samples from 31 patients with ERMs (group 1) and from 30 with MHs (group 2) were analyzed. For 12 of the tested cytokines (GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIF, CCL15, CCL20, CCL17, CX3CL1, CXCL10, CXCL16, and TGF-β-1, -2, and -3), no intergroup differences were revealed; for the other 31, the concentrations were higher in the ERM than in the MH group (P < 0.0012 in each case).


The vitreal levels of 72% of the tested cytokines were higher in ERM than in MH. This indicates that even in the absence of clinical markers, activation of inflammatory and profibrotic mechanisms is implicated in the progression of ERMs. Although frequently used as such in the past, eyes with ERMs should be considered with caution as a healthy control group.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Head Organs and Neurology (DKNS) > Clinic of Ophthalmology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > BioMedical Research (DBMR) > Forschungsbereich Mu50 > Forschungsgruppe Herz und Gefässe

UniBE Contributor:

Tappeiner, Christoph, Despont, Alain, Rieben, Robert, Garweg, Justus


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology




Christoph Tappeiner

Date Deposited:

23 Mar 2017 12:41

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:01

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