Regional facial asymmetries and attractiveness of the face.

Kaipainen, Anu Eeva; Sieber, Kevin R; Nada, Rania M; Maal, Thomas J; Katsaros, Christos; Fudalej, Piotr (2016). Regional facial asymmetries and attractiveness of the face. European journal of orthodontics, 38(6), pp. 602-608. Oxford University Press 10.1093/ejo/cjv087

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OBJECTIVE Facial attractiveness is an important factor in our social interactions. It is still not entirely clear which factors influence the attractiveness of a face and facial asymmetry appears to play a certain role. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between facial attractiveness and regional facial asymmetries evaluated on three-dimensional (3D) images. METHODS 3D facial images of 59 (23 male, 36 female) young adult patients (age 16-25 years) before orthodontic treatment were evaluated for asymmetry. The same 3D images were presented to 12 lay judges who rated the attractiveness of each subject on a 100mm visual analogue scale. Reliability of the method was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS All subjects showed a certain amount of asymmetry in all regions of the face; most asymmetry was found in the chin and cheek areas and less in the lip, nose and forehead areas. No statistically significant differences in regional facial asymmetries were found between male and female subjects (P > 0.05). Regression analyses demonstrated that the judgement of facial attractiveness was not influenced by absolute regional facial asymmetries when gender, facial width-to-height ratio and type of malocclusion were controlled (P > 0.05). LIMITATIONS A potential limitation of the study could be that other biologic and cultural factors influencing the perception of facial attractiveness were not controlled for. CONCLUSIONS A small amount of asymmetry was present in all subjects assessed in this study, and asymmetry of this magnitude may not influence the assessment of facial attractiveness.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > School of Dental Medicine > Department of Orthodontics

UniBE Contributor:

Kaipainen, Anu Eeva; Katsaros, Christos and Fudalej, Piotr


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Oxford University Press




Eveline Carmen Schuler

Date Deposited:

19 Apr 2017 09:15

Last Modified:

01 Jan 2020 02:30

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

cheek; chin; face; forehead; hemifacial microsomia; congenital facial asymmetry; lip; nose




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