An evaluation of rescanning technique for liver tumour treatments using a commercial PBS proton therapy system.

Zhang, Ye; Huth, Isabel; Wegner, Martin; Weber, Damien Charles; Lomax, Antony John (2016). An evaluation of rescanning technique for liver tumour treatments using a commercial PBS proton therapy system. Radiotherapy and oncology, 121(2), pp. 281-287. Elsevier 10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.011

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The treatment quality of pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy to mobile tumour treatments can be compromised due to interplay effects. The aim of this work is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of rescanning for liver tumour treatments for a commercial PBS delivery system. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plans were calculated to patient specific ITV's (2GyRBE), using spot spacings of 4 and 8mm for 1- and 3-field plans. 4D dose calculations were performed using regular and irregular motion extracted from nine 4DCT(MRI) liver datasets with 4 different starting phases. Up to 19 times adaptive-scaled layered and volumetric rescanning were simulated using beam profiles and delivery dynamics of a commercial proton therapy system. RESULTS For small (∼10mm) motions, 3-field plans achieved CTV HI's (D5-D95) to within 8.5% (80th percentile) of the static case without rescanning. For larger motions, volumetric rescanning resulted in 4.5% improved HI in comparison to layered, but requires 5 times longer treatment times and is more sensitive to detailed plan characteristics and delivery dynamics. Increased spot spacings were found to reduce sensitivity to interplay and reduce delivery times by 60%, whilst reduced energy switching times decreased treatment time by up to 75% for volumetric rescanning without however improving plan quality. CONCLUSION For the investigated proton therapy system, rescanning can help recover dose homogeneity under conditions of motion but, particularly for motions over 10mm, should be combined with additional motion mitigation techniques.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Radiation Oncology

UniBE Contributor:

Weber, Damien Charles


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Beatrice Scheidegger

Date Deposited:

26 Apr 2017 12:26

Last Modified:

28 Apr 2017 16:39

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

4D dose calculation; 4DMRI; Interplay effect; Moving targets; Rescanning; Scanned proton therapy




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