Interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based training leads to safe sedation procedures in the emergency department.

Sauter, Thomas; Hautz, Wolf; Hostettler, Simone; Brodmann Maeder, Monika; Martinolli, Luca; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Haider, Dominik (2016). Interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based training leads to safe sedation procedures in the emergency department. Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, 24(97), p. 97. BioMed Central 10.1186/s13049-016-0291-7

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Sedation is a procedure required for many interventions in the Emergency department (ED) such as reductions, surgical procedures or cardioversions. However, especially under emergency conditions with high risk patients and rapidly changing interdisciplinary and interprofessional teams, the procedure caries important risks. It is thus vital but difficult to implement a standard operating procedure for sedation procedures in any ED. Reports on both, implementation strategies as well as their success are currently lacking. This study describes the development, implementation and clinical evaluation of an interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based sedation training concept.


All physicians and nurses with specialised training in emergency medicine at the Berne University Department of Emergency Medicine participated in a mandatory interdisciplinary and interprofessional simulation-based sedation training. The curriculum consisted of an individual self-learning module, an airway skill training course, three simulation-based team training cases, and a final practical learning course in the operating theatre. Before and after each training session, self-efficacy, awareness of emergency procedures, knowledge of sedation medication and crisis resource management were assessed with a questionnaire. Changes in these measures were compared via paired tests, separately for groups formed based on experience and profession. To assess the clinical effect of training, we collected patient and team satisfaction as well as duration and complications for all sedations in the ED within the year after implementation. We further compared time to beginning of procedure, time for duration of procedure and time until discharge after implementation with the one year period before the implementation. Cohen's d was calculated as effect size for all statistically significant tests.


Fifty staff members (26 nurses and 24 physicians) participated in the training. In all subgroups, there is a significant increase in self-efficacy and knowledge with high effect size (d z  = 1.8). The learning is independent of profession and experience level. In the clinical evaluation after implementation, we found no major complications among the sedations performed. Time to procedure significantly improved after the introduction of the training (d = 0.88).


Learning is independent of previous working experience and equally effective in raising the self-efficacy and knowledge in all professional groups. Clinical outcome evaluation confirms the concepts safety and feasibility.


An interprofessional and interdisciplinary simulation-based sedation training is an efficient way to implement a conscious sedation concept in an ED.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > University Emergency Center

UniBE Contributor:

Sauter, Thomas; Hautz, Wolf; Brodmann Maeder, Monika; Martinolli, Luca; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis and Haider, Dominik


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




BioMed Central




Romana Saredi

Date Deposited:

10 May 2017 15:52

Last Modified:

14 May 2017 02:16

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Conscious sedation; Emergency department; Interprofessional education




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