Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies.

Jonsdottir, Hulda Run; Dijkman, Ronald (2016). Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies. Virology journal, 13(24), p. 24. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12985-016-0479-5

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Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large RNA viruses that infect the human respiratory tract. The emergence of both Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory syndrome CoVs as well as the yearly circulation of four common CoVs highlights the importance of elucidating the different mechanisms employed by these viruses to evade the host immune response, determine their tropism and identify antiviral compounds. Various animal models have been established to investigate HCoV infection, including mice and non-human primates. To establish a link between the research conducted in animal models and humans, an organotypic human airway culture system, that recapitulates the human airway epithelium, has been developed. Currently, different cell culture systems are available to recapitulate the human airways, including the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) human airway epithelium (HAE) model. Tracheobronchial HAE cultures recapitulate the primary entry point of human respiratory viruses while the alveolar model allows for elucidation of mechanisms involved in viral infection and pathogenesis in the alveoli. These organotypic human airway cultures represent a universal platform to study respiratory virus-host interaction by offering more detailed insights compared to cell lines. Additionally, the epidemic potential of this virus family highlights the need for both vaccines and antivirals. No commercial vaccine is available but various effective antivirals have been identified, some with potential for human treatment. These morphological airway cultures are also well suited for the identification of antivirals, evaluation of compound toxicity and viral inhibition.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > Host-Pathogen Interaction
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Virology and Immunology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)

UniBE Contributor:

Jonsdottir, Hulda Run and Dijkman, Ronald

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

1743-422X

Publisher:

BioMed Central

Language:

English

Submitter:

Achim Braun Parham

Date Deposited:

07 Jul 2017 11:16

Last Modified:

09 Jul 2017 02:13

Publisher DOI:

10.1186/s12985-016-0479-5

PubMed ID:

26852031

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.96174

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/96174

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