The development of metacognitive monitoring and control in second graders: A short-term longitudinal study

Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela (2017). The development of metacognitive monitoring and control in second graders: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of cognition and development, 18(1), pp. 110-128. Taylor & Francis 10.1080/15248372.2016.1157079

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Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders’ (N = 119, aged 8–9 years) metacognitive monitoring and control abilities in the context of spelling. Children were tested at the beginning (T1) and at the end of their 2nd school year (T2). The study focused on the development of monitoring and control, their interplay at both measurement points and across time, and the cross-sectional and longitudinal impact of 1st-order task performance (here, spelling) on the 2 metacognitive processes. Results revealed substantial developmental progression in most monitoring and control measures. Monitoring and control were interrelated cross-sectionally only at T2, but longitudinally, control predicted monitoring. Interestingly, earlier spelling performance predicted not only later spelling, but also later monitoring and control abilities. The findings indicate that earlier domain-specific skills in the 1st-order task (i.e., spelling) are 1 of several possible driving forces for metacognitive development.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Developmental Psychology

Graduate School:

Swiss Graduate School for Cognition, Learning and Memory (SGS-CLM)

UniBE Contributor:

Roebers, Claudia and Spiess, Manuela


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology




Taylor & Francis




Michelle Maurer

Date Deposited:

31 Jul 2017 09:27

Last Modified:

31 Jul 2017 09:27

Publisher DOI:



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