International sport federations’ commercialisation: a qualitative comparative analysis

Clausen, Josephine; Bayle, Emmanuel; Giauque, David; Ruoranen, Kaisa Reetta; Lang, Grazia; Schlesinger, Torsten; Klenk, Christoffer; Nagel, Siegfried (2018). International sport federations’ commercialisation: a qualitative comparative analysis. European Sport management quarterly, 18(3), pp. 373-392. Taylor & Francis 10.1080/16184742.2017.1406970

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Research question: This study examines the conditions and
configurations that particularly influence International Federations’
(IFs) commercialisation.
Research method: Crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis
(csQCA) is used to determine the conditions that are related to an
IFs’ commercialisation. Sixteen interviews were conducted in six
Olympic IFs and one international sport umbrella organisation.
Results and findings: The findings reveal a variety of high and low
commercialisation configurations. Specialisation is a key condition
in both high and low commercialisation, and social media
engagement is central in high commercialisation. Strategic
planning and low accountability have low degrees of overlap with
high commercialisation outcomes. With 13 out of 22 IFs achieving
high levels of commercialisation, the findings demonstrate that IFs
are increasingly developing business-like behaviours.
Implications: The findings highlight the importance of
specialisation and social media engagement to achieve high
commercialisation. However, when IFs assume a monetisation
agenda, there are associated risks such as stakeholder legitimacy,
mission drift, goal vagueness and adherence to good governance

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW)
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW) > Sport Sociology and Management

UniBE Contributor:

Ruoranen, Kaisa Reetta, Lang, Grazia, Schlesinger, Torsten, Klenk, Christoffer, Nagel, Siegfried


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
700 Arts > 790 Sports, games & entertainment




Taylor & Francis


[4] Swiss National Science Foundation


[UNSPECIFIED] Professionalization in Sport Federations




Kaisa Reetta Ruoranen

Date Deposited:

19 Feb 2018 15:14

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:10

Publisher DOI:





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