Swiss Study to Validate the Mannheimer Craving Scale (MaCS)

Reichenbach, Fabian; Burren, Yuliya; Flückiger, Christoph; Znoj, Hans Jörg; Moggi, Franz (2018). Swiss Study to Validate the Mannheimer Craving Scale (MaCS). Sucht, 64(1), pp. 11-20. Hogrefe 10.1024/0939-5911/a000520

Reichenbach et al. Sucht 2018 After Peer Review (2).pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (619kB) | Preview
[img] Text
0939-5911_a000520.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to registered users only
Available under License Publisher holds Copyright.

Download (1MB) | Request a copy

Aim: In the research and treatment of Substance Use Disorders (SUDs), craving for alcohol, nicotine, and drugs is an important concept associated with addictive processes, including relapse after treatment. The 12-item Mannheimer Craving Scale (MaCS) has been proved to be an economic, reliable, and valid self-rating instrument across several substances in German samples. The aim of this study was to examine its psychometric characteristics in a Swiss German sample. Method: Overall, 166 patients were recruited from an inpatient SUD treatment program at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Bern, Switzerland. Results: The internal consistency was high and the test-retest reliability was satisfactory. The total scale and three specific analogue craving measures were highly correlated. Principal component analysis extracted two factors, explaining 62 % of the total variance, and these factors were confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. However, the two factors correlated highly, and several items loaded on both factors, so that the factor structure was inconclusive. Conclusions: The psychometric characteristics of the MaCS in a Swiss German sample are as good as those characteristics of the German version, suggesting that it is a valid and reliable measure. The MaCS factor structure must be examined on a larger sample that integrates a broader range of SUDs and their severities.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > University Psychiatric Services > University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy > Translational Research Center
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology > Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology

UniBE Contributor:

Burren, Yuliya, Flückiger, Christoph, Znoj, Hans Jörg, Moggi, Franz (A)


100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health








Salome Irina Rahel Bötschi

Date Deposited:

03 Apr 2018 09:50

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:35

Publisher DOI:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Craving, MaCS, questionnaire, factor structure, psychometric characteristics




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback