Haploid genetic screens identify genetic vulnerabilities to microtubule-targeting agents.

Gerhards, Nora Merete; Blomen, Vincent A; Mutlu, Merve; Nieuwenhuis, Joppe; Howald, Denise; Guyader, Charlotte; Jonkers, Jos; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Rottenberg, Sven (2018). Haploid genetic screens identify genetic vulnerabilities to microtubule-targeting agents. Molecular oncology, 12(6), pp. 953-971. Elsevier 10.1002/1878-0261.12307

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The absence of biomarkers to accurately predict anticancer therapy response remains a major obstacle in clinical oncology. We applied a genome-wide loss-of-function screening approach in human haploid cells to characterize genetic vulnerabilities to classical microtubule-targeting agents. Using docetaxel and vinorelbine, two well-established chemotherapeutic agents, we sought to identify genetic alterations sensitizing human HAP1 cells to these drugs. Despite the fact that both drugs act on microtubules, a set of distinct genes were identified whose disruption affects drug sensitivity. For docetaxel, this included a number of genes with a function in mitosis, while for vinorelbine we identified inactivation of FBXW7, RB1, and NF2, three frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes, as sensitizing factors. We validated these genes using independent knockout clones and confirmed FBXW7 as an important regulator of the mitotic spindle assembly. Upon FBXW7 depletion, vinorelbine treatment led to decreased survival of cells due to defective mitotic progression and subsequent mitotic catastrophe. We show that haploid insertional mutagenesis screens are a useful tool to study genetic vulnerabilities to classical chemotherapeutic drugs by identifying thus far unknown sensitivity factors. These results provide a rationale for investigating patient response to vinca alkaloid-based anticancer treatment in relation to the mutational status of these three tumor suppressor genes, and could in the future lead to the establishment of novel predictive biomarkers or suggest new drug combinations based on molecular mechanisms of drug sensitivity.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Animal Pathology

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Gerhards, Nora Merete; Mutlu, Merve; Howald, Denise and Rottenberg, Sven

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture
500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

1878-0261

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Nora Merete Gerhards

Date Deposited:

09 May 2018 15:58

Last Modified:

03 Jun 2018 02:29

Publisher DOI:

10.1002/1878-0261.12307

PubMed ID:

29689640

Uncontrolled Keywords:

FBXW7 docetaxel haploid screens vinorelbine

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.116402

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/116402

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